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The words "become", "get", "go" and "turn" are not always used correctly. We've listed some phrases which are wrong and some which are correct. Always use a good dictionary if you're not sure.

correct phrase

common error

I got a present from him.

I became a present from him.

When do I get my steak?

When do I become my steak?

He got a shock when he saw his car.

He became a shock when he saw his car.

The tea does him good.

The tea becomes him good.

I want to become a teacher.

I will a teacher.

He became famous.

He would famous

We became friends.

We were friends.

It became clear that she wanted to leave.

It would clear that she wanted to leave.

It's getting dark.

It will dark.

He turned red.

He was red.

She went white when she saw the accident.

She was white when she saw the accident.

The word "get" is very common in spoken English, "become" is more formal.
German native speaker sometimes use "become" in an incorrect way



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[ سه شنبه 19 خرداد 1394 ] [ سه شنبه 19 خرداد 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

Orders

Thank you for your quotation of JUNE 1st 2002.

We are pleased to place an order with you for 200 MCF computers.

Please send us the undermentioned goods.

We should be grateful for delivery by 26th September 2002.

Please quote number 234.559 on all correspondence.

Please confirm receipt of the order.

Your prices are not competitive enough.

We have therefore decided not to place an order with you.

Our order no. 100.334 has not yet been delivered.

Please submit a quotation for a substitute.

We should like to cancel our order no. 778.001.

We are pleased to acknowledge your order of 1st July 2001.

Our dispatch department is processing your order.

Delivery will be made by 6th July 2001.

We will require two weeks to process your order.

The goods are no longer in stock/out of stock/no longer available.

However, we can offer you a substitute.

I am afraid your order has gone missing.



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Information

I was given your name by Mr Fisher.

We are interested in your samples.

I was interested to hear/know/see that ...

There is much demand for ...

Would you kindly send us model 4DC ?

We would be grateful for further details about your
offer.

Please let us know the current freight rate for sea/rail /air/ road transport.

In addition I would like a valid price list.

Would your company be able ...?

Please get in touch with our secretary, Mrs Barnes.

Please reply without delay/by return of post



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Faults and complaints

The goods we ordered on 11th March have not arrived.

We regret to inform you that our order no.2244, which should have been delivered by 3rd November, is now considerably overdue.

Our consignment of 100 computers was stolen in transit.

Mr Boyle is extremely concerned at ...

We have marked the delivery slip accordingly.

Please arrange for reimbursement of the value of the damaged goods.

I should like to query the charge for packing which seems unusually high.

We are sorry to hear that the goods are damaged.



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Faults and complaints

The goods we ordered on 11th March have not arrived.

We regret to inform you that our order no.2244, which should have been delivered by 3rd November, is now considerably overdue.

Our consignment of 100 computers was stolen in transit.

Mr Boyle is extremely concerned at ...

We have marked the delivery slip accordingly.

Please arrange for reimbursement of the value of the damaged goods.

I should like to query the charge for packing which seems unusually high.

We are sorry to hear that the goods are damaged.



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Delivery

Delivery will take three weeks.

The items are in stock and should be ready for dispatch by next Wednesday.

We will dispatch the goods on Tuesday by air freight.

Please note the address of our office.

Order no. 2113 will be ready for delivery as from 24th August 2002.

We are afraid to tell you that we are unable to deliver your order.

The documentation requested has been sent to you by registered post.

by messenger/by courier

This table was written by Ulrike Schroedte



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[ سه شنبه 19 خرداد 1394 ] [ سه شنبه 19 خرداد 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

      1)         Some people say that you cannot make a conscious effort to learn a foreign language.  They hate to study grammar and say you must simply allow the language to sink in gradually

 

Others argue that language learning is a conscious and systematic process.   It is necessary to study hard, practise, and constantly ask for explanations and rules.

 

            Which idea do you believe in?    

 

2)         Some people think that to learn a new language you must completely forget your native language.  Others say you cannot and should not.  To what extent do you find that comparing your native language with the foreign language helps you to learn a new language?


 



ادامه مطلب

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Reading

Matters

2

·         Four Kinds of Reading/ Four levels of Support

·         Four Kinds of

·         Reading

·         Levels of Support

·         Materials

·         Reading

·         Aloud

·         + The teacher selects and

·         reads a book or other text

·         to the children. Texts rich

·         in meaning or language

·         and class favorites are

·         read again a

·         nd again, and

·         are used as a base for

·         other activities.

·         Language/Word Study

·         Block

·         + Teacher provides full

·         support for children to

·         access the text.

·         + Children respond to

·         pictures, meaning, and

·         language.

·         + Children respond to

·         pictures, meaning, and

·         languag

·         e.

·         + They may join in but

·         usually do not focus on

·         features of print.

·         + Individual book for

·         teacher

·         Shared

·         Reading

·         + The teacher introduces

·         and reads an enlarged

·         text o

·         r

·         a small text of

·         which each child has a

·         copy. On refrains and in

·         multiple readings

·         , children

·         join in, reading in unison.

·         Language/Word Study

·         Block

·         + Teacher provides

·         high level of support.

·         + There is some group

·         problem

·         -

·         solving and a

·         lot of conversation

·         about the meaning of

·         the story.

·         + Readers support each

·         other.

·         + Large

·         -

·         print chart

·         s

·         + Big books

·         + Individual copies

·         + Easel

·         + Pointers

·         Guided

·         Reading

·         + The teacher selects and

·         introduces a new text.

·         + Children read the whole

·         text to themselves.

·         Reading Workshop

·         + Some teacher

·         support is needed.

·         + Reader problem

·         -

·         solves a new

·         text in a

·         way that is mostly

·         independent

·         + Individual books

·         +

·         Easel and chart

·         paper

·         +

·         White board

·         +Magnetic letters

·         Independent

·         Reading

·         + The children read to

·         themselves or with

·         partners.

·         Reading Workshop

·         + Little or no teacher

·         support is needed.

·         +

·         The

·         reader

·         independently solves

·         problems while reading

·         for meaning.

·         + Big and little books

·         + Large

·         -

·         print charts

·         + Writing displayed in

·         the room

·         + Classroom library

+ Pointers



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The following questions concern your feelings about your language learning experience.

1)                   Many language learners feel very negative about their learning experiences.  They say they feel discouraged, frustrated, impatient, or confused by the difficulties of learning a language. 

Have you ever experienced any of these feelings?  Can you explain? 

2)         Others say they feel shy or embarrassed expressing themselves in the foreign language.   

Have you ever felt this way?    Can you explain?

            4)         If you have experienced some of these feelings, what did you do to overcome them?      

3)         When you are learning a language, are you usually:   

a.      highly motivated, and do everything possible to learn the language.

b.      quite motivated, and try to do what you can to learn the language, but it is not your priority.

c.      not very motivated, because you are too busy or tired to concentrate on it.  You are learning out of necessity.

d.      not very motivated, because you find learning languages boring. 

6)                   Do you give yourself encouragement, by saying things to yourself like: “I’m doing okay” or “I’m right, I know it.”

Do you have any other comments about your language learning experiences that you would like to tell me?



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Teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) refers to teaching English to students whose first language is not English. TEFL usually occurs in the student's own country, either within the state school system, or privately, e.g., in an after-hours language school or with a tutor. TEFL teachers may be native or non-native speakers of English.

This article describes English teaching by native Anglophones working outside their own country, a small subset of English taught worldwide. To learn about other aspects of English teaching, see English language learning and teaching, which explains methodology and context, and explains abbreviations (e.g., the difference between ESL and EFL, or TESOL as a subject and an organization). For information on foreign language teaching in general, see language education and second language acquisition.



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By Kenneth Beare,

There are many ways to study English, but many students ask which is the most effective. Unfortunately, I don't think there is a single answer that is right for every student. However ... I can certainly give advice I some helpful guidelines as to how to study that should help.

Warming-up to Study English

Just as there are exercises to help you warm up before you play some basketball or other sport, there are exercises which can help you warm up to study English. Here are some simple exercises to help you warm up.

1.     Study English I: Activating Your Vocabulary

Activate your vocabulary by thinking or speaking briefly about the subject you are about to work on. For example, if you are going to study English on topics that focuses on vacations, take a moment to think about your last vacation, what you did, what you enjoyed, etc. This simple exercise will help your brain warm-up to vocabulary that you are likely to encounter as you study English about this particular subject.

1.     Study English II: Activating Your Grammar

Activate your grammar by thinking about the general grammar area before you begin to study. For example, if you are going to study English grammar focusing on the past, stop to think about what you did last weekend, where you went, etc. to help activate what you already understand about using the past. As with activating vocabulary, you'll help your brain bring up what it knows about the past simple in an easy way before you begin to focus on studying English grammar in detail.

1.     Study English III: Singing a Song

Before class begins, or before you sit down to study English sing a song in English to yourself. Make sure to use a song that you understand and know very well. This short and fun exercise will help your brain focus on the English language in a relaxing manner. It's important to be relaxed when you study English! Singing a song also helps activate the creative side of your brain which can help you come up with more examples as your practice conversation or do some creative writing.

1.     Study English IV: Typing e a Short Paragraph in English

If you going to study English at your desk, begin by typing a simple paragraph in English. You can type about your day, your hobbies, your friends, etc. Anything will do. Typing helps activate the kinetic part of your brain that helps improve learning through physical activity. I also recommend typing while you study your English grammar. This will help solidify your knowledge with movement.

1.     Study English V: A Thousand Words ...

As the saying goes in English: A picture is worth a thousand words. Help activate the creative side of your brain by trying to describe a photo or other image. You can combine use this also to activate your vocabulary by choosing a picture that has something to do with the subject your are going to study in English.

Study English - Tips for Success

Here are some tips for success to help you as you study English.

1.     Study English Every Day

It's important to study English every day. However, don't exaggerate! Study for thirty minutes every day instead of two hours once a week. Short, steady practice is much better for learning than long periods on an irregular basis. This habit of studying English every day will help keep English in your brain fresh.

1.     Study English Using Different Methods to Learn

Don't just use one way to study English. Use a variety of methods which will help all the parts of your brain (multiple intelligences) help you. For example, if you are learning new vocabulary, create a word map, describe a picture, make a list and study that, type out the words five times. All of these methods together help to reinforce your learning.

1.     Study English by Finding some Friends

There is nothing like having a few friends to study English together. You can practice the exercises together, have conversations together (in English!), and, as you study English together, help each other with exercises you may not understand.

1.     Study English by Choosing Topics that Interest You

One of the most important things to do is to study English using topics that you like. This will help motivate you because you will also be learning about a topic you find interesting while you study English.

 



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[ چهارشنبه 06 خرداد 1394 ] [ چهارشنبه 06 خرداد 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

Learning English (or any language for that matter) is a process. You are continually improving your English and the following "How to" describes a strategy to make sure that you continue to improve effectively.

Difficulty: Average

Time Required: Varies

Here's How:

  1. Remember that learning a language is a gradual process - it does not happen overnight.
  2. Define your learning objectives early: What do you want to learn and why?
  3. Make learning a habit. Try to learn something every day. It is much better to study (or read, or listen to English news, etc.) 10 minutes each day than to study for 2 hours once a week.
  4. Remember to make learning a habit! If you study each day for 10 minutes English will be constantly in your head. If you study once a week, English will not be as present in your mind.
  5. Choose your materials well. You will need reading, grammar, writing, speaking and listening materials
  6. Vary your learning routine. It is best to do different things each day to help keep the various relationships between each area active. In other words, don't just study grammar.
  7. Find friends to study and speak with. Learning English together can be very encouraging.
  8. Choose listening and reading materials that relate to what you are interested in. Being interested in the subject will make learning more enjoyable - thus more effective.
  9. Relate grammar to practical usage. Grammar by itself does not help you USE the language. You should practice what you are learning by employing it actively.
  10. Move your mouth! Understanding something doesn't mean the muscles of your mouth can produce the sounds. Practice speaking what you are learning aloud. It may seem strange, but it is very effective.
  11. Be patient with yourself. Remember learning is a process - speaking a language well takes time. It is not a computer that is either on or off!
  12. Communicate! There is nothing like communicating in English and being successful. Grammar exercises are good - having your friend on the other side of the world understand your email is fantastic!
  13. Use the Internet. The Internet is the most exciting, unlimited English resource that anyone could imagine and it is right at your finger tips.

Tips:

  1. Remember that English learning is a process
  2. Be patient with yourself
  3. Practice, practice, practice


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[ چهارشنبه 06 خرداد 1394 ] [ چهارشنبه 06 خرداد 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Introduction

In the USA, children start school when they are five or six years old. Depending on the state, schooling is compulsory until the age of 16 or 18. Children younger than five can go to a nursery school or preschool.

At the age of five or six, the children attend elementary school (also known as grade school or grammar school), which last six years. The fist year at elementary school is called kindergarten.

After elementary school, students attend middle school (also known as junior high school) for three years. Then they continue at high school. In some states, students have to stay in school until they are 18 years old. In other states they may leave school at 16 or 17 with parental permission.

Age

School

< 5

nursery school / preschool

5-11

elementary school

11-14

middle school / junior high school

14-18

high school / senior high school

When students in the USA say what year they are in, they usually use ordinal numbers, e. g. ‘tenth grade’. (In the UK students would use cardinal numbers, e. g. ‘year ten’.)

Classes

At elementary school pupils primarily learn how to read, write and count. There are about 20 to 30 pupils in one class.

At junior and senior high school, mandatory subjects are English, maths, biology, chemistry, physics, physical education and history. Schools also offer optional courses from which the students can choose, e. g. art, modern languages, computers. Physical education is a very important subject in the United States – many students participate in sports programs.

Gifted and talented students can take advanced courses in their schools or attend additional courses at community colleges in the afternoons or during the holidays. Often such courses are later acknowledged by universities, and can facilitate early graduation.

Grading Scale

In the USA (as in other English speaking countries) letter grades are used in reports.

  • A > 90 % (excellent)
  • B > 80 % (very good)
  • C > 70 % (improvement needed)
  • D > 60 % (close fail)
  • E > 50 % (fail)
  • F < 50 % (fail)

In general, only grades A to C are a 'pass' – a plus (+) or minus (-) might be added (e. g. A-, B+).

Different Kinds of Schools

Most students in the USA are enrolled in public schools. These are financed through taxes, so parents do not have to pay for their children's education. About 10 % of US students attend private schools, where parents have to pay a yearly fee.

Another option is homeschooling: approximately 1-2 % of parents in the USA educate their children at home. Some reasons for homeschooling are religious views, special needs (e. g. handicapped children), or problems in traditional schools (bullying, drugs etc.). However, there is also opposition to homeschooling claiming that the students have difficulties socializing with others, that homeschooling (often carried out by the parents) is of a poor academic quality and that (especially concerning religion) extremist views might be encouraged.

School Uniforms

It is not common for students in the USA to wear school uniforms, but many schools have dress codes telling students what kind of clothing is or is not allowed in school. Some schools (especially private schools) have started to require their students to wear school uniforms in order to improve school discipline and avoid 'fashion cliques'.



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[ شنبه 26 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ شنبه 26 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Introduction

In this text you will find general information on the education system in the UK. As there are separate education systems in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, the actual ages etc. might vary a little.

School in the UK is compulsory between the ages of five and sixteen. Children younger than five can go to a toddler group (accompanied by a parent), playgroup or nursery school.

Compulsory schooling begins at the age of five. Pupils first attend primary school, which lasts for six years. Often primary school in the UK is divided into infant school (the first two years) and junior school (the following 4 years).

After primary school, students go to secondary school until they are sixteen (practical emphasis) or 18 (secondary school with 6th form - academic emphasis).

The school year consists of three terms. Students have about 12-13 weeks of holiday per school year.

Age

School

< 5

nursery school

 

5-11

primary school

oder

5-7

infant school

7-11

junior school

 

11-18

secondary school with 6th form

oder

11-16

secondary school

16-18

6th form college

When students in the UK say what year they are in, they usually use cardinal numbers, e. g. ‘year ten’. (In the USA, students would use ordinal numbers, e. g. ‘tenth grade’.)

Classes

At primary school, classes run Monday to Friday from about 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. There are usually between 25 and 35 pupils in one class. They primarily learn how to read, write and count. They also learn something about their country and about religion and they begin to study their first foreign language.

At secondary school, classes also run Monday to Friday, but are usually from about 8.45 to 3.30. Typical mandatory subjects are English, maths, natural sciences (biology, physics, chemistry), modern languages (French, German, Spanish), religion, citizenship, physical education, information and communication technology, geography and history. Apart from these, schools also offer optional courses from which their students can choose. At the age of sixteen, students usually sit several exams and decide whether they want to leave school or continue in a 6th form college.

Gifted and talented students can choose to enter for examinations early (one year or several terms) and then take additional courses in these or other subjects.

Grading Scale

In the UK (as in other English speaking countries) letter grades are used in reports.

  • A > 80% (excellent)
  • B > 70% (very good)
  • C > 60% (improvement needed)
  • D > 50% (close fail)
  • E > 40% (fail)
  • F < 40% (fail)

In general, only grades A to C are a 'pass'. Still, in the UK no student has to repeat a year – weak students can take extra lessons at school.

Different Kinds of Schools

Most students in the UK are enrolled in state funded schools. These are financed through taxes, so parents do not have to pay for their children's education. But there are also numerous private schools, also known as independent schools, where education is not free of charge.

Students can choose to attend a co-educational school or a single sex school.

School Uniforms

It is common for students in the UK to wear school uniforms. They consist of:

  • blazer or sweater with school logo
  • shirt and tie or polo shirt / t-shirt
  • dark trousers or dark skirt
  • black shoes

At some schools, students are required to wear a shirt and a tie, other schools only require a t-shirt or sweater. The colour of the uniform also depends on the school – blazer, sweater, trousers and skirt are usually blue, grey, green or brown.

Changed: 10th Dec 2010 19:39



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بازدید : 49
[ شنبه 26 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ شنبه 26 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

By Kenneth Beare

Here are some tips to improving English both in how your learn and via the internet.

1.     Remember that learning a language is a gradual process - it does not happen overnight.

2.     Define your learning objectives early: What do you want to learn and why? - Take this quiz to find out what kind of English learner you are.

3.     Make learning a habit. Try to learn something every day. It is much better to study (or read, or listen to English news, etc.) 10 minutes each day than to study for 2 hours once a week. - Take the English tip of the day newlsetter to help you.

4.     Choose your materials well. You will need reading, grammar, writing, speaking and listening materials - Beginners can use this starting English guide, intermediate to advanced learners can use this continue learning English guide.

5.     Vary your learning routine. It is best to do different things each day to help keep the various relationships between each area active. In other words, don't just study grammar.

6.     Find friends to study and speak with. Learning English together can be very encouraging. - Soziety can help you find friends to speak English over the inernet.

7.     Choose listening and reading materials that relate to what you are interested in. Being interested in the subject will make learning more enjoyable - thus more effective.

8.     Relate grammar to practical usage. Grammar by itself does not help you USE the language. You should practice what you are learning by employing it actively.

9.     Move your mouth! Understanding something doesn't mean the muscles of your mouth can produce the sounds. Practice speaking what you are learning aloud. It may seem strange, but it is very effective.

10.                        Be patient with yourself. Remember learning is a process - speaking a language well takes time. It is not a computer that is either on or off!

11.                        Communicate! There is nothing like communicating in English and being successful. Grammar exercises are good - having your friend on the other side of the world understand your email is fantastic!

12.                        Use the Internet. The Internet is the most exciting, unlimited English resource that anyone could imagine and it is right at your finger tips.

13.                        Be patient with yourself.

14.                        Practice, practice, practice



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[ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is famous for his courageous leadership in the fight to end racial segregation in mid 20th century America. He advocated civil disobedience, a nonviolent approach to defying the legal system that upheld segregation.

Dr. King is also remembered for his powerful sermons and speeches. This worksheet features a few examples of his words. The main source of these quotations is brainyquote.com.

Match the quote by Martin Luther King, Jr. with the comment or interpretation below. The first one has been matched for you.

The words of Martin Luther King, Jr.:

 

1. “Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that.”

 

2. “I have decided to stick with love. Hate is too great a burden to bear.”

 

3. “I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. ”

 

4. “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.”

 

5. “Life's most urgent question is: what are you doing for others?”

 

6. “Nothing in the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity.”

 

7. “Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter.”

***************

A. People should behave in a way that makes life better for their fellow humans.

 

B. This was clearly Dr. King's belief as he dedicated his life to speaking out against injustice.

 

C. In this analogy, darkness is to hate as light is to love.

 

D. Hating others hurts the hater.

 

E. Believing that one is right is no excuse for being in the wrong.

 

F. If you agree with this quote, you cannot feel completely safe when others are treated unfairly.

 

G. Behavior, not skin color, tells us what we should think of a person.

Quotations

See if you can answer the following questions about the meanings of quotations.

 

1. “A teacher is someone who talks in our sleep.”    Alfred E. Neuman

The point of this quote is that _______.

A. students dream about going to school
B. students don't pay attention in school
C. homework is relaxing
D. teachers shouldn't disturb students' naps

2. “A person who won't read has no advantage over one who can't read.”    Mark Twain

Twain is saying that _______.

A. reading isn't necessary
B. reading ability is nothing if it isn't used
C. he is a great author
D. you should learn how to read

3. “Too bad SpongeBob isn't here to enjoy SpongeBob not being here.”    Squidward

Squidward actually means that _______.

A. he misses SpongeBob
B. he likes SpongeBob's visits
C. he enjoys SpongBob's absense
D. he enjoys television

4. “Continuous effort - not strength or intelligence - is the key to unlocking our potential.”    Winston Churchill

Churchill really meant this because he was not a _______.

A. smoker
B. leader
C. farmer
D. quitter


5. “An ounce of practice is worth more than tons of preaching.”    Mohandas Gandhi

Which statement or quote is similar to the above quote?

A. The pen is mightier than the sword.”   Edward Bulwer-Lytton
B. Actions speak louder than words.
C. Practice makes perfect.
D. “Courtesy is as much a mark of a gentleman as courage.”   Theodore Roosevelt

 

Quotations

See if you can answer the following questions about the meanings of quotations.

 

1. “Acting is all about honesty. If you can fake that, you've got it made.”    George Burns

Burns was  _______.

A. saying that he is honest
B. angry about what  actors do
C. a fake
D. making a joke

2. “If passion drives you, let reason hold the reins.”    Benjamin Franklin

This means that _______.

A. you should think before you act
B. avoid fast horses
C. do whatever you feel like doing
D. let someone else drive

3. “You must do the things you think you cannot do.”    Eleanor Roosevelt

This means that  _______.

A. we should fool ourselves
B. we are confused
C. we can't do all that much
D. we're capable of doing more than we realize

4. “Government's first duty is to protect the people, not run their lives.”    Ronald Reagan

Reagan wanted to _______.

A. have government solve all our problems
B. limit the power of government
C. shrink the military
D. eliminate all governments


5. “You aren't learning anything when you're talking.”    Lyndon B. Johnson

This means that it's important to _______.

A. talk louder
B. teach
C. help others.
D. listen to others

Sports Quotes

Complete each quote by writing the appropriate sport in the blank. Each sport below is only used once . Look for clues in the quotes to help you choose correctly.



baseball    basketball    football    golf    hockey    skiing    soccer    tennis

 

1. “____________________ is a good walk spoiled.”    Mark Twain

 

2. “I let my racket do the talking. That's what I am all about, really. I just go out and win 
____________________ matches.”    Pete Sampras

 

3. “Sure, luck means a lot in ____________________. Not having a good quarterback is bad luck.”    Don Shula

 

4. “If God had wanted man to play ____________________, he wouldn't have given us arms.”    Mike Ditka


5. “It was a fun ride. I've enjoyed my time on the ice and I've enjoyed more and more people getting interested in the game of ____________________.”    Ron Francis


6. “____________________ combines outdoor fun with knocking down trees with your face.”    Dave Barry


7. “Little League ____________________ is a very good thing because it keeps the parents off the streets.”    Yogi Berra


8. “If all I'm remembered for is being a good ____________________ player, then I've done a bad job with the rest of my life.”    Isiah Thomas



درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب ,
بازدید : 46
[ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Quickly review important new information shortly before going to bed.

Research has shown that our brains process information that is fresh in our brains while we sleep. By shortly (this means very quickly - just a glance at what you are working on at the moment) going over some exercise, reading, etc. before you go to sleep, your brain will work away on this information while you sleep!

Other ideas on how your brain works

While doing exercises and alone at home or in your room, speak English aloud.

Connect the muscles of your face to the information in your head. Just as understanding the basics of tennis does not make you a great tennis player, understanding grammar rules does not mean you can automatically speak English well. You need to practice the act of speaking often. Speaking by yourself at home and reading the exercises you are doing will help connect your brain to your facial muscles and improve pronunciation and make your knowledge active.



درباره : درك مطلب ,
بازدید : 26
[ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Ask yourself weekly: What do I want to learn this week?

Asking yourself this question every week will help you stop and think for a moment about what is most important to you. It is easy to focus only on the current unit, grammar exercise, etc. If you take a moment to stop and set a goal for yourself every week, you will notice the progress you are making and, in turn, become more inspired by how quickly you are learning English! You will be surprised at how this feeling of success will motivate you to learn even more English.



درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب ,
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[ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Tips:

1.      Be patient with yourself. It takes a while to learn how to speak English well. Remember to give yourself time and treat yourself well.

2.      Do everything everyday, but only do ten to fifteen minutes of the more boring tasks. If you want to improve listening skills, just listen to the radio fifteen minutes rather than an hour. Do ten minutes of grammar exercises. Never do too much English. It's better to do just a little bit every day rather than a lot only twice a week.

Make mistakes, make more mistakes and continue to make mistakes. The only way you will learn is by making mistakes, feel free to make them and make them often.

  1. Learn how to speak English about the things you like doing. If you enjoy speaking about the topic, it will be much easier for you to learn how to speak English well in a shorter amount of time.

What You Need

  1. Patience
  2. Time
  3. Willingness to make mistakes
  4. Friends who can speak English with you
  5. Books or internet resources in English


درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب ,
بازدید : 30
[ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Pronouncing every word correctly leads to poor pronunciation! Good pronunciation comes from stressing the right words - this is because English is a time-stressed language.

Difficulty: Hard

Time Required: Varies

Here's How:



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درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 37
[ دوشنبه 04 اسفند 1393 ] [ دوشنبه 04 اسفند 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

I am often surprised at how focusing on the "stress - timed" quality of English helps students improve their pronunciation skills. Students often focus on pronouncing each word correctly and therefore tend to pronounce in an unnatural manner. By focusing on the stress - timed factor in English - the fact that only principal words such as proper nouns, principal verbs, adjectives and adverbs receive the "stress" - students soon begin sounding much more "authentic" as the cadence of the language begins to ring true. The following lesson focuses on raising awareness of this issue and includes practice exercises.

Aim: Improving pronunciation by focusing on the stress - time nature of spoken English

Activity: Awareness raising followed by practical application exercises

Level: Pre - intermediate to upper intermediate depending on student needs and awareness

Outline:



ادامه مطلب

درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 50
[ دوشنبه 04 اسفند 1393 ] [ دوشنبه 04 اسفند 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman

 

Researchers have identified three kinds of developmental reading disabilities that often overlap but that can be separate and distinct: (1) phonological deficit, (2) processing speed/orthographic processing deficit, and (3) comprehension deficit.

 

Researchers have made considerable progress in understanding all types of reading disabilities (Fletcher et al., 2007). For purposes of research, "reading impaired" children may be all those who score below the 30th percentile in basic reading skill. Among all of those poor readers, about 70-80 percent have trouble with accurate and fluent word recognition that originates with weaknesses in phonological processing, often in combination with fluency and comprehension problems. These students have obvious trouble learning sound-symbol correspondence, sounding out words, and spelling. The term dyslexic is most often applied to this group.

Another 10-15 percent of poor readers appear to be accurate but too slow in word recognition and text reading. They have specific weaknesses with speed of word recognition and automatic recall of word spellings, although they do relatively well on tests of phoneme awareness and other phonological skills. They have trouble developing automatic recognition of words by sight and tend to spell phonetically but not accurately. This subgroup is thought to have relative strengths in phonological processing, but the nature of their relative weakness is still debated by reading scientists (Fletcher et al, 2007; Katzir et al., 2006; Wolf & Bowers, 1999). Some argue that the problem is primarily one of timing or processing speed, and others propose that there is a specific deficit within the orthographic processor that affects the storage and recall of exact letter sequences. This processing speed/orthographic subgroup generally has milder difficulties with reading than students with phonological processing deficits.

Yet another 10-15 percent of poor readers appear to decode words better than they can comprehend the meanings of passages. These poor readers are distinguished from dyslexic poor readers because they can read words accurately and quickly and they can spell. Their problems are caused by disorders of social reasoning, abstract verbal reasoning, or language comprehension.

Subtypes of Reading Disability

Researchers currently propose that there are three kinds of developmental reading disabilities that often overlap but that can be separate and distinct:

  1. Phonological deficit, implicating a core problem in the phonological processing system of oral language.
  2. Processing speed/orthographic processing deficit, affecting speed and accuracy of printed word recognition (also called naming speed problem or fluency problem).
  3. Comprehension deficit, often coinciding with the first two types of problems, but specifically found in children with social-linguistic disabilities (e.g., autism spectrum), vocabulary weaknesses, generalized language learning disorders, and learning difficulties that affect abstract reasoning and logical thinking.

If a student has a prominent and specific weakness in either phonological or rapid print (naming-speed) processing, they are said to have a single deficit in word recognition. If they have a combination of phonological and naming-speed deficits, they are said to have a double deficit (Wolf & Bowers, 1999). Double-deficit children are more common than single-deficit and are also the most challenging to remediate. Related and coexisting problems in children with reading disabilities often include:

  • faulty pencil grip and letter formation;
  • attention problems;
  • anxiety;
  • task avoidance;
  • weak impulse control;
  • distractibility;
  • problems with comprehension of spoken language; and
  • confusion of mathematical signs and computation processes.

About 30 percent of all children with dyslexia also have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD



درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 32
[ جمعه 10 بهمن 1393 ] [ جمعه 10 بهمن 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

In His Exalted Name

EFL Learners' Types of Oral Errors

and

 Teachers' Preferences For Correction

 

By:

Morteza Ahmady Gohari

Winter 1387

 

Abstract

Error correction has so far been dealt with in teaching English as a foreign language. Generally the role of this issue been restricted to teachers; however, a new wave of research has started to seek learner's opinions towards error correction. The process of error occurrence is inevitable in learning a language and knowing how to deal with it and how to provide appropriate feedback has always been the subject of investigation. The present study seeks to find out the role of error correction in EFL classroom and how much teachers care for error correction in oral context and what types of errors they consider to be corrected and what methods of correction they use. It also aims at finding about the learner's attitude towards error correction. It tries to investigate how best errors can be treated. It deals primarily with pedagogical applications for error analysis and error correction and is addressed to foreign and second language teachers.

 

Key words: error, mistake, error, correction, error analysis.

 



ادامه مطلب

درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 40
[ جمعه 10 بهمن 1393 ] [ جمعه 10 بهمن 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

ERRORS_ CORRECT THEM OR NO?!

By:Azimeh Najafi Sayyar

Fars

Jahrom

Farzanegan Pre-University Center

 

Esfand 1387


Abstract

One of the most frequent questions asked by teachers is: “When, where and how should I correct the learners’ errors?”

Error correction is regarded as one of the most crucial aspects of classroom management that needs considerable skill and a careful policy on the part of the teacher. And for learners, error correction is part of the process of recognizing their errors and having confidence to try again in speaking abilities.

Recently, there has been a debate about the significance of error correction in the classroom. Some argue that since in acquiring the mother tongue, a child hardly takes notice of parental correction, and since adults follow a similar process in learning a second or foreign language, correction by teacher is of dubious value. On the contrary, many believe that error correction is an expected role for the teacher in foreign language situations where there’s little exposure to English.




ادامه مطلب

درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 56
[ جمعه 10 بهمن 1393 ] [ جمعه 10 بهمن 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

1. Don't study grammar too much

This rule might sound strange to many ESL students, but it is one of the most important rules. If you want to pass examinations, then study grammar. However, if you want to become fluent in English, then you should try to learn English without studying the grammar. 

Studying grammar will only slow you down and confuse you. You will think about the rules when creating sentences instead of naturally saying a sentence like a native. Remember that only a small fraction of English speakers know more than 20% of all the grammar rules. Many ESL students know more grammar than native speakers. I can confidently say this with experience. I am a native English speaker, majored in English Literature, and have been teaching English for more than 10 years. However, many of my students know more details about English grammar than I do. I can easily look up the definition and apply it, but I don't know it off the top of my head. 

I often ask my native English friends some grammar questions, and only a few of them know the correct answer. However, they are fluent in English and can read, speak, listen, and communicate effectively. 

Do you want to be able to recite the definition of a causative verb, or do you want to be able to speak English fluently? 




ادامه مطلب

درباره : درك مطلب , مقالات فارسي در مورد زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 56
[ دوشنبه 01 دي 1393 ] [ دوشنبه 01 دي 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

·         By salimerol

 

 

English is an international language which is used officially all around the world. Anybody who wants to make connections with the world we live in should learn English. I had English language classes in my secondary and high school years. I also took some private English learning courses throughout summers in my country, Turkey. However, I could not improve my English effectively as all Turkish students in Turkey. I fully agree that English will be learned most efficiently in the boundaries of an English-speaking country not in the home country because of some cases. Therefore, I came here, USA, to learn English better after graduation from my university.

First, English is dealt with all the time while staying in an English-speaking country. For instance, I have read newspapers and books, listened to the news, and watched movies, series, and commercials that are all in English since I came here. On the other hand, there are Turkish or translated of them in my country, so nothing forces me to look for media in English. I engage in it in daily life in the USA, as well. While I am doing my shopping, I can see English labels of vegetables, fruit, and ingredients of all food. If I would like to eat outside or to go to a coffee shop, the menus will be in English. Even if I just roam around, I will see shop names, advertising posters and the boards in English. In addition, everybody with whom I concerned communicates in English. I came here for the education; therefore I particularly make connections with my instructors and classmates. I can learn spoken English while I listen to them. Also, I speak English to make them understand me. I can develop not only my listening and speaking, but also my writing skills in order to give my homework in English to the teachers. All those experiences enumerated above will definitely enhance my English in an intensive way which I have never encountered in my own country.

Second, it is possible that English might be learned...



درباره : درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 26
[ دوشنبه 01 دي 1393 ] [ دوشنبه 01 دي 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

If you plan on making your way in the world, learning a second language is imperative. English has a foothold as the “language of business,” and being so, has become the most commonly learnt second language amongst foreign language speakers. Not only is English significant in the business world, but in general, when people of differing native languages congregate, English is the language of everyday conversation. Again, this is because it’s most commonly taught in foreign schools, as English is the collective language spoken by 1.8 billion people worldwide, or 27% of the world’s population. By virtue of this, for those willing to make the effort, learning English proffers forth benefits that learning any other second language mightn’t. Highlighted below are some of these benefits, including employment opportunities; technical, economic and scientific innovation; and cultural understanding.

As the language of business, English will open up the world to you in nearly any field of employment. Because it’s so important to be bilingual, any company in any country of the world prefers a bilingual employee – and even more so, an English-speaking one – over an employee who speaks only his/her native tongue. In being bilingual in English, you will be able to communicate with others in all corners of the world (remember, over 27% of the world’s population speaks English), and you will be able to translate for those in your company who do not speak English. This makes you an exceedingly vital communication tool. Not only will you be an asset to your company, but you will reap many benefits as a result, such as a larger annual income, a better standard of living, and the opportunity to live just about anywhere in the world.

Along with being the language of business, English is the language of economic development, as well as technical and scientific innovation. The United States is the leader in technical innovation and economic development and, as a consequence, the language to know in making your way in these fields is English. English is also the language of science, so scientists must be fluent in order to communicate their findings with others. Being successful in any one of these prosperous fields requires fluency in English.

Lastly a great benefit to learning English is that it increases cultural understanding, not only of native English-speaking cultures, but of any other country whose second language is English. The film and music industries are largely English-driven. The art, traditions and culture of any country, especially those of native English-speaking countries, can be better understood if you have some knowledge of the English language. Being centuries-old and having been the native language of empirical powers and world leaders, English remains a great source of influence in human history, weaved into the narrative of many cultures, and sewn, like a cultural seed, throughout time.

 

If you endeavor to learn a second language, that language should be English. The benefits it proffers – including employment opportunities; technical, economic and scientific innovation; and cultural understanding – are exceeded by no other language in the world.



درباره : درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 58
[ دوشنبه 01 دي 1393 ] [ دوشنبه 01 دي 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Once we have some good ideas and have consulted with others via books and journals, written communication, face-to-face meetings, and other means, we are ready to write our piece. Of course, the act of writing itself can help us get ideas, and we may often find in the course of our writing that we need to go back and get some new ideas or revise the ones we started with. Below are five ideas that I try to keep in mind in my own writing.

Connect Ideas



ادامه مطلب

درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 55
[ جمعه 25 مهر 1393 ] [ جمعه 25 مهر 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 


When we write for language learning journals, we benefit ourselves and others. Our students benefit in several ways. Firstly, if we are writing for journals, when we ask our students to write in class, it is not a case of "Do as I say, but not as I do", because we can show with them that we are "doing" too, by sharing with them about our own writing. In this way, we serve as a model and show that writing is not just something people do as a course assignment. Also, as we are writers too - facing the difficulties that all writers face, such as developing ideas, finding the right words to express our ideas, and facing sometimes unfavorable feedback - we may be slower to criticize our students, more accepting of their faults, and more insightful in the advice we offer.



ادامه مطلب

درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 54
[ جمعه 25 مهر 1393 ] [ جمعه 25 مهر 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  (Redirected from Associative learning)

Jump to: navigation, search

"Learn" and "Learned" redirect here. For other uses, see Learn (disambiguation) and Learned (disambiguation).


Learning is acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning curves. Learning is not compulsory, it is contextual. It does not happen all at once, but builds upon and is shaped by what we already know. To that end, learning may be viewed as a process, rather than a collection of factual and procedural knowledge.

Human learning may occur as part of education, personal development, schooling, or training. It may be goal-oriented and may be aided by motivation. The study of how learning occurs is part of neuropsychology, educational psychology, learning theory, and pedagogy. Learning may occur as a result of habituation or classical conditioning, seen in many animal species, or as a result of more complex activities such as play, seen only in relatively intelligent animals.[1][2] Learning may occur consciously or without conscious awareness. There is evidence for human behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as early as 32 weeks into gestation, indicating that the central nervous system is sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur very early on in development.[3]

Play has been approached by several theorists as the first form of learning. Children play, experiment with the world, learn the rules, and learn to interact. Vygotsky agrees that play is pivotal for children's development, since they make meaning of their environment through play. The context of conversation based on moral reasoning offers some proper observations on the responsibilities of

Types of learning

Simple non-associative learning



ادامه مطلب

درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 52
[ جمعه 25 مهر 1393 ] [ جمعه 25 مهر 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

WikiLeaks is an internet  platform  that  publishes secret  documents from many different  sources . The website started in 2006 and today has about 1.2 million documents in its  database . Wikileaks was  founded  by journalists and other media experts. An Australian, Julian Assange , is its  head .



ادامه مطلب

درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب ,
بازدید : 53
[ جمعه 25 مهر 1393 ] [ جمعه 25 مهر 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Since the start of the revolutions in northern Africa at the beginning of 2011 more than 30,000 people have arrived on the tiny island of Lampedusa in the Mediterranean Sea. In January and February most people came from Tunisia after riots in their country. Most recently more and more have come on fishing boats and risked their lives in order to escape the regime of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. Despite the dangers of the 200 km long journey thousands more are expected to arrive as long as civil war goes on in Northern Africa.



ادامه مطلب

درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب ,
بازدید : 42
[ جمعه 25 مهر 1393 ] [ جمعه 25 مهر 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

African State

Sudan is the largest country in Africa. It is divided into a northern and a southern region. Muslim Arabs live in the northern and central part of the country while southern Sudan is inhabited by black Africans. They are followers of Christianity and traditional religions.

Civil war has been going on in Sudan for almost half a century. In January, 2011 the people of southern Sudan voted for an independent state.

 



ادامه مطلب

درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب ,
بازدید : 49
[ جمعه 25 مهر 1393 ] [ جمعه 25 مهر 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

12. A Young Girl Knows How

She is six years old. She knows how to walk. She knows how to run. She knows how to swim. She knows how to play soccer. She knows how to ride a horse. She knows how to walk her dog. She knows how to read. She knows how to write.

13. A Baby Goes to Sleep

Thebaby crawls on the floor. It stops. Then it crawls some more. Then itstops again. Mama looks at the baby. She picks up the baby. She carriesthe baby to the crib. She puts the baby in the crib. She puts a blanketon the baby. The baby falls asleep.

 

14. He Eats a Candy Bar

Hepicks up the candy bar. He reads the label. The label says Baby Ruth. He unwraps the candy bar. He throws the wrapper into the trashcan. Hebites into the candy bar. He chews it. He swallows it. He bites into thecandy bar again. It is delicious. He loves candy bars.

 

15. A Backpack and a Bus

Itis time to go to school. He puts his books into his backpack. He putshis arms through the straps. He puts his backpack on his back. He walksoutside. He goes to the bus stop. He stands at the bus stop. He waitsfor the bus. He sees the bus.

16. An Airplane in the Sky

The boy hears a sound. He looks up. He sees an airplane. The airplane is in the sky. It is a silver airplane. It has two wings. It has a tail. It has two jet engines. There is a pilot on the airplane. He flies the airplane. He lands the airplane.

 



درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , داستان كوتاه ,
بازدید : 64
[ دوشنبه 17 شهريور 1393 ] [ دوشنبه 17 شهريور 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 


In this section:
What it is
Historical perspective
Background theory
How extensive reading may appear in a language class
- Types of programs
-Characteristics
- Materials
- Activities
- Assessment
Role of teacher
Role of student
Advantages
Challenges
Research topics
 

What it is

  • Brown (1989) explains that extensive reading is carried out "to achieve a general understanding of a text."
  • Long and Richards (1971, p.216) identify extensive reading as "occurring when students read large amounts of high interest material, usually out of class, concentrating on meaning, "reading for gist" and skipping unknown words."
  • The aims of extensive reading  are to build reader confidence and enjoyment.
  • Extensive  reading is always done for the comprehension of main ideas, not for specific details.

?



ادامه مطلب

درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 85
[ سه شنبه 14 مرداد 1393 ] [ سه شنبه 14 مرداد 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

In this section:
What it is
How it  looks
-Characteristics
-Materials
-Skills developed
-Activities
-Assessment
When it is used
Role of the teacher
Advantages
Disadvantages
Questions sometimes asked
 

What it is

  • Brown (1989) explains that intensive reading "calls attention to grammatical forms, discourse markers, and other surface structure details for the purpose of understanding literal meaning, implications, rhetorical relationships, and the like." He draws an analogy to intensive reading as a "zoom lens" strategy . 
  • Long and Richards (1987) say it is a "detailed in-class" analysis, led by the teacher, of vocabulary and grammar points, in a short passage."
  • Intensive Reading,  sometimes called "Narrow Reading",  may  involve students reading selections by the same author or several texts about the same topic. When this occurs, content and grammatical structures repeat themselves and students get  many opportunities to understand the meanings of the text. The success of  "Narrow Reading" on improving reading comprehension is based on the premise that the more familiar the reader is with the text, either due to the subject matter or having read other works by the same author, the more comprehension is promoted.

How it looks

Characteristics:

  • usually classroom based 
  • reader is intensely involved in looking  inside the text 
  • students focus on linguistic or semantic details of a reading 
  • students focus on surface structure details such as grammar and discourse markers
  • students identify key vocabulary
  • students may draw pictures to aid them (such as in problem solving)
  • texts are read carefully and thoroughly, again and again 
  • aim is to build more language knowledge rather than simply practice the skill of reading 
  • seen more commonly than extensive reading in classrooms

Materials:

  • usually very short texts - not more than 500 words in length 
  • chosen for level of difficulty and usually, by the teacher
  • chosen to provide the types of reading and skills that the teacher wants to cover in the course

Skills developed:

  • rapid reading practice 
  • interpreting text by using:

           -word attack skills


           -text attack skills
           -non-text information

Activities:

Intensive reading exercises may include:

  • looking at  main ideas versus details
  • understanding what is implied versus stated
  • making inferences
  • looking at the order of information and how it effects the message
  • identifying words that  connect one idea to another
  • identifying words that indicate change from one section to another


Munby (1979) suggests four categories of questions that may be used in intensive reading. These include:

1.   Plain Sense -  to understand the factual, exact surface meanings in the text

2.   Implications - to make inferences and become sensitive to emotional tone and figurative language

3.   Relationships of thought - between sentences  or paragraphs

4.   Projective - requiring the integration of information from the text to one's own background information

Note that  questions may fall into more than one category.

Assessment:

Assessment of intensive reading  will take the form of  reading tests and quizzes. 
The most common  systems  of questioning are multiple-choice and free-response.
Mackay (1968) , in his book  Reading in a Second Language, reminds teachers that the most important objective in the reading class  should NOT be the  testing of the student to see if they have understood. Teachers  should, instead, be spending most of the time training the student to understand what they read. 

When it is used

  • when the objective of reading is to achieve full understanding of: 

           - logical argument
           - rhetorical pattern of text
           - emotional, symbolic or social attitudes and purposes of the author
           - linguistic means to an end

  •  for study of content material that are difficult 

 Role of the teacher

  • The teacher chooses suitable text.
  • The teacher chooses tasks and activities to develop skills.
  • The teacher gives direction before, during and after reading.
  • The teacher prepares students to work on their own. Often the most difficult part is for the teacher to "get out of the way" .
  • The teacher encourages students through prompts, without giving answers.

Advantages

  • It provides a base to study structure, vocabulary and idioms.
  • It provides a base for students to develop a greater control of language
  • It provides for a check on the degree of comprehension for individual students

Disadvantages

  • There is little actual practice of reading because of the small amount of text.
  • In a class  with multi-reading abilities, students may not be able to read at their own level because everyone in the class is reading the same material.
  • The text may or may not interest the reader because it was chosen by the teacher.
  • There is little chance to learn language patterns due to the small amount of text.
  • Because exercises and assessment usually follow intensive reading, students may come to associate reading with testing and not pleasure.

Questions sometimes asked

  • Should the text be read aloud first or some explanation given?

- Nuttall (1986) suggests that if the teacher reads the text aloud before starting work on it, they have assumed part of the students' job.
- Others argue that without some help some students could not understand the text.
- Still others argue that it is easy to underestimate students. they may actually understand  more than is thought. If students cannot make any progress, the material may be unsuitable.



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[ سه شنبه 14 مرداد 1393 ] [ سه شنبه 14 مرداد 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

Here are four different kinds of reading.

  • Skimming - running the eyes over quickly, to get the gist
  • Scanning - looking for a particular piece of information
  • Extensive reading - longer texts for pleasure and needing global understanding
  • Intensive reading - shorter texts, extracting specific information, accurate reading for detail.

Types of Reading

Maija MacLeod


In this Page:


Overview:

Aims of the web page:

Several types of reading may occur in a language classroom. One way in which these may be categorized , as suggested by Brown (1989) can be outlined as follows:

                            A. Oral
                            B. Silent
                                 I. Intensive
                                    a. linguistic
                                    b. content
                               II. Extensive
                                   a. skimming
                                   b. scanning
                                   c. global

The first distinction that can be made is whether the reading is oral or silent. This web page will not deal with oral reading, only silent reading. 

Within the category of silent reading, one encounters intensive and extensive reading.  Intensive reading is used to teach or practice specific reading strategies or skills. The text is treated as an end in itself.  Extensive reading on the other hand,  involves reading of large quantities of material, directly and fluently.  It is treated as a means to an end. It may include reading reading simply for pleasure or reading technical, scientific or professional material. This later type of text, more academic, may involve two specific types of reading, scanning for key details or skimming for the  essential meaning.   A relatively quick and efficient read, either on its own or after scanning or skimming, will give a global or general meaning. 

This web page then will first examine intensive reading. The second part will deal with extensive reading, with a focus on how it results in a general or global meaning. The fourth part gives a short comment on how intensive and extensive reading may operate in the same class. The fourth part examines scanning and the fifth, scanning. A final sixth part comments on how scanning and skimming may be used in the same reading.



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  •  KINDS OF READING andREADING TECHNIQUES ENGN01G/ENGN02G MS. LAARNI V. PEREZ
  • KINDS OF READINGAccording to purpose & manner of comprehending
  • 1. Extensive Reading - reading for pleasure any topic of interest - main purpose: to relax and enjoy yourself - comics, humorous stories, tales, novels, short articles in the newspapers and magazines, jokes, and other forms of light reading materials
  • 2. Intensive Reading - careful or in-depth reading - you read for details and extract specific info on particular topics - the kind of reading you do when you study, prepare a term paper, or an oral report - has several techniques or sub-types: scanning, skimming, exploratory reading, study reading, critical reading, and analytical reading
  • READING TECHNIQUES/SUBKINDS for Intensive Reading1. Scanning - rapid reading assisted by key words to locate specific pieces of info - for research, review - gets info that answer what, who, where, when, howExs. looking for a word meaning in the dictionary, getting a docu from the filing cabinet, looking through the yellow pages
  • 2. Skimming - rapid reading focusing on the TITLE, HEADINGS, TOPIC SENTENCE, SIGN POSTS to get the main idea - effective preliminary step to reading thoroughly bec. after skimming, you can quickly go back to details you need to read entirely
  • Skimming Steps1. Preview the text by reading the title and the introduction. (Usually, the intro has the thesis statement).2. Check if there are headings and subheadings.3. Read the 1st parag. and the 1st sentences of the succeeding parags.4. Quickly check keywords in the parag. (sometimes higlighted, italicized, underlined)5. Read the last parag. (Usually it summarizes the main points.6. If you feel that a parag. contains impt. Info that answers what, why, when, how, and who, read it fully.
  • Examples:• Surveying a chapter/article• Reviewing something you’ve read• Choosing a magazine/book to buy in the bookstore
  • 3. Exploratory Reading• Aims to get a fairly accurate picture of a whole presentation of ideas; how the whole selection is presented• Allots more time for reading• Examples:• Long articles in mags. , short stories, descriptive texts
  • 4. Study Reading - the reader must get a maximum understanding of the main ideas and their relationships - examples: SQ3R, SQ4R (survey, question, read, record, recite, review) SQ4R: STEPS 1. SURVEYING: (preparing for reading) Take note of the titles, headings & subheadings; words in italics or bold print; intro & summaries; pictures & captions; questions at the end of the chapter or section (do this in few minutes only)
  • 2. QUESTIONING: (focusing your reading)Turn headings & subheadings into questionsby asking who, what, when, where, why, andhow abt. them.3. READING: (focusing your reading)Take time to read with maximumcomprehension. Try to answer the questionsyou posed in the previous step. Try to det.the main ideas and major details of the text.
  • 4. RECORDING: (focusing your reading)Take note so you can remember what youhave read.5. RECITING: (recalling step)Recite aloud or mentally, pair up with apartner for a Q&A session.6. REVIEWING: (recalling step)Repeat some of the previous steps andreview on a regular basis
  • 5. Critical Reading - question, analyze and evaluate the text - use differentiate bet. factücritical-thinking skills to: & make inferences abt.ürecognize author’s purpose in writing;üopinion; purposes and recognize the author’s tone inücharacters; recognize persuasive techniques orüwriting; propaganda designed to sway you to believe
  • - reader stops to consider the facts carefully, “take time to read in order to the get facts straight”Examples: Reading done in periodicals, books, ads which are loaded with propaganda devices designed to sway opinions
  • 6. Analytical Reading - careful attention to each word and its importance in relation to other words in the sentence or the parag. - Examples: Reading mathematical problems, scientific formulas, and certain definitive statements of key ideas that require a questioning/inquisitive mind
  • 7. Developmental Reading - When a reader is under a comprehensive reading program that lets him go through stages & monitors him closelyExamples:• SRA• ARC


درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
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[ سه شنبه 07 مرداد 1393 ] [ سه شنبه 07 مرداد 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

Goats are being hired to do the work of men in a neighborhood just outside of San Diego. The fires that occurred in Hill borough four years ago destroyed thirty homes, most of which have been  rebuilt. While contractors were rebuilding the homes, nature was reproving the grasses, bushes, and shrubs. The area is now so overgrown in brush that it again poses a major fire hazard.

The city council asked f or bids to remove he b t rush. The lowest bid they received was $50,000. And that was if the city provided breakfast and lunch for the work crews for the six weeks it would take to clear the overgrown area. The city countered, offering unlimited coffee (black only) and a doughnut a day for each crew member. When that offer was rejected, the city asked for help on  its website.

A sheepherder in Montana and a goat herder in San Bernardino  read about the city's plight while surfing the web on their laptops They both offered to do the job for $25,000. The council chose J the goat herder because he lived closer. When told that the city dump was overflowing, the goat herder said, "No problem. My goats

will eat everything in your dump. Except for the automobile  engines, of course." So, for another $5,000, the city killed two birds with one stone. If all goes well, they will invite the goat herder and his "family" back every three years. The I goat herder said he will probably visit San Diego while his goats are I just in the dump. I want to take one of those hang-glider rides. I just  hope we don't crash. My goats would miss me a lot," he said.



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21. Her Doll Is Like Her

Sharonis four years old. She is pretty. She has a doll. It is pretty. Sharonhas blonde hair. The doll has blonde hair. Sharon has short hair. Thedoll has long hair. Sharon gets a pair of scissors. She cuts the doll’slong hair. She finishes. Now the doll has short hair too.

22. A Fork, Spoon, Plate, and Carrot

He picks up his fork. He picks up his spoon. He hits the plate with his fork. He hits the plate with his spoon. His mom says Stop. He stops. His mom puts a carrot on the plate. He looks at the carrot. He picks up the spoon. He hits the carrot with the spoon.

 

23. She Sees a Worm

Theworm crawls on the ground. It crawls slowly. She watches it. She picksit up. It wiggles in her hand. She puts it in her mouth. It wiggles inher mouth. She takes it out of her mouth. She puts it back on theground. It crawls into a hole.

24. He Talks to Mom

The phone rings. He hears the ringing. He picks up the phone. He says hello. The other person says hello. The other person is his mom. She talks to him. He talks to her. She finishes talking. She says goodbye. He says goodbye. They hang up. He waits. The phone rings again.

25. Car in a Car Wash

She sits in the car. Her dad drives the car. He drives to a car wash. The car goes through the car wash. Water sprays onto the car. Soap sprays onto the car. Soft brushes scrub the car. More water sprays onto the car. The car is clean. Men dry the car with clean rags. The car is dry.

 



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