close
تبلیغات در اینترنت
زمان در زبان انگليسي

آموزش زبان انگلیسی
بانک سوالات دبیرستانی - مقالات آموزشی و مطالب مفید آپدیت روزانه نود 32 بانك مقالات كنكوري و روش مطالعه
قالب وبلاگ
جستجو

 

 

از going to do زمانی برای آینده استفاده میکنیم که میخواهیم تصمیم بر انجام کار برنامه ریزی نشده ای را بیان کنیم.

- I hear Sarah has won some money. What is she going to do with it?

    She’s going to buy a new car.

 

- What are you going to do tonight?

   I’m going to have an early night. (I’m going to bed early but I haven’t arranged the time for it)

 

نکته: از عبارت was going to do هنگامی استفاده میکنیم که میخواهیم بگوییم قصد انجام کاری را داشتیم اما به علتی آنرا انجام ندادیم:

 -  I was just going to cross the road when sb shouted ‘Stop!’

 - We were going to travel by train, but then we decided to go by car instead.



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 62
[ جمعه 26 دي 1393 ] [ جمعه 26 دي 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

By Kenneth Beare, About.com Guide

See More About:

Beginning to intermediate level English learners can use this quick overview of the present simple tense to learn uses and examples of the present tense to speak about routines, facts, and opinions. Examples are provided for each use of the present simple, as well as the structure for positive, negative and questions. To practice the present simple read about Tim's Day. You can also test your understanding with this present simple quiz.



ادامه مطلب

درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 45
[ جمعه 25 مهر 1393 ] [ جمعه 25 مهر 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

In your notebook, write these sentences putting the verbs into the correct tense.

1 She (read) at the moment.

She's reading at the moment.

2 (You go) to work by car?

Do you qo to work by car?

3 I (not watch} television every night.

/ don't watch television every night.

4 I (not watch) television at the moment.

I'm not watching television at the moment.

33

Verbs

5 We {see] our parents every week.

6 (You listen) to the radio now?

7 I (not get up) at seven o'clock every morning.

8 Peter (talk) to Susan now.

9 (They work) in the restaurant at the weekends?

10 She (listen) to the radio in her bedroom at the moment.

11 They (not come) to school every day.

12 (You work) now?

13 The children (go) to bed at eight o'clock.

14 1 (leave) the office every day at five.

15 I'm sorry i can't talk to you now. I (go) out.

16 (Peter and Jane work) in London at the moment?

17 (Mary and Susan drive) to the office every day?

18 We (go) to the beach now.

19 (John listen) to the radio at the moment?

20 (Your parents sit) in the garden now?

21 The film (start) every night at eight o'clock

22 They (not go) to the cinema very often.

23 (You go) into the office every month?

24 I (not study) at the moment



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 40
[ دوشنبه 10 شهريور 1393 ] [ دوشنبه 10 شهريور 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

زمان آينده : كاري است كه در زمان آينده انجام خواهد شد.

فاعل + will / shall + طرز ساخت : بقيه جمله + فعل اصلي

هم استفاده كنيم . shall مي توانيم از (will) براي اول شخص مفرد و اول شخص جمع بيشتر به جاي

نشانه هاي زمان آينده ساده:

بين فاعل و فعل اصلي shall و يا will الف) وجود فعل كمكي

( tomorrow) ب) وجود قيود زمان مثل فردا

قيود زمان :

tomorrow فردا

soon به زودي

sooner or later دير يا زود

three weeks تا سه هفته ديگر

next + در آينده زمان

in+ زمان ( a week/ a year/ a month (تا يک هفته، يک سال ،يک ماه ديگه

منفي مي شوند و به شكل not مي باشد كه با shall يا will تغييرات در زمان آينده : به عمده فعل كمكي

در مي آيند. shan’t و يا won’t

به كار نمي رود. shall يا will تذكر بسيار مهم: با كلمات زير

if 􀃆 اگر unless 􀃆 مگر

 

when􀃆 وقتيكه as long as 􀃆 ماداميكه

while 􀃆 وقتيكه s uppose 􀃆 به فرض اينكه

before 􀃆 قبل از as soon as 􀃆 بمحض اينكه

after 􀃆 بعد از to pass 􀃆 قبول شدن

till 􀃆 تا

until 􀃆 تا

فرمولهاي طرز ساخت :

( I ) آينده + before + زمان حال

( II ) before + آينده و حال

You will pass if you study.

If you study you will pass.

I will call you as soon as I get home.

As soon as I get home , I will call you.

 



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 51
[ جمعه 07 شهريور 1393 ] [ جمعه 07 شهريور 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

We use the Simple Present when we talk about something which happens repeatedly.

 


We use the Simple Present to describe a series of actions in the present.

Simple Present - Long forms, short forms

 

Long forms and short forms in the Simple Present

We often use short forms of the auxiliaries. The Simple Present is formed with a full verb. Short forms are only used in negative phrases.

affirmative

long form

short form

I, we, you, they:

-

I read

-

he, she, it:

-

he reads

-

 

negative (do not)

long form

short form

I, we, you, they:

I, we, you, they:

I do not read

I don't read

he, she, it:

he, she, it:

he does not read

he doesn't read

 



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 36
[ یکشنبه 19 مرداد 1393 ] [ یکشنبه 19 مرداد 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

These words tell you what tense you have to use. For the Simple Present these are adverbs of frequency:

always
often
usually
sometimes
seldom
never

Other phrases of time can occur, like:
every day
every week
every year
on Mondays
after school

Form of the Simple Present

We use the infinitive of the verb. In the 3rd person Singular (he, she, it - or a name) we put an -s to the end of the infinitive.

infinitive - 3rd person Singular (he, she, it) infinitive + -s


Affirmative sentences:

I/we/you/they play football.
He/she/it plays football.

NOTE: he, she, it - Do not forget the -s.


Negative sentences:

We use the auxiliary do.
I/we/you/they do
not play football.
He/she/it does
not play football.

NOTE: We often use short forms in negative sentences in the Simple Present:
I/we/you/they don't play football.
He/she/it doesn't play football.


Questions:

Do I/we/you/they play football?
Does he/she/it play football?



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 34
[ شنبه 21 تير 1393 ] [ شنبه 21 تير 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Summary

Use

Signal words

Form of affirmative, negative sentences and questions

Spelling

Special verbs

Diagram

Long forms and short forms

Simple Present - Complex Test 1Complex Test 2

Exercises - Simple Present

Use

1) repeated actions

My friend often draws nice posters.


2) things in general

The sun rises in the East.


3) fixed arrangements, scheduled events

The plane flies to London every Monday.


4) sequence of actions in the present

First I get up, then I have breakfast.


5) instructions

Open your books at page 34.


6) with special verbs

I understand English.


Signal words

every day, often, always, sometimes, never


Form

infinitive (3rd person singular he, she, it: infinitive + -s)


Examples

Affirmative sentences:

I read books.

My brother reads books.

We sing pop songs.

She sings pop songs.

I play handball.

John plays handball.

Negative sentences:

You must not negate a full verb in English. Always use the auxiliary do for negations.

I

 

like

computers.

I

don't

like

computers at all.

 

My friend

 

likes

computers.

My mum

doesn't

like

computers at all.

Questions:

Use the auxiliary do.
Do you play football?
Does he play football?



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 88
[ شنبه 21 تير 1393 ] [ شنبه 21 تير 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Sometimes the past simple and the present perfect are confused. It is important to remember that the past simple is used to express a finished past action which occurs at a specific moment in the past. The present perfect is used to express something that happened at an unspecified moment in the past. For example, if I visited Paris in 2004, I could express this in two ways:

Past Simple

I visited Paris in 2004.
I went to Paris a few years ago.

Note that the moment in time is specific - in 2004, a few years ago.

Present Perfect

I've been to Paris.
I've visited Paris.

In this case, the moment of my visit is not specific. I am speaking about an experience that I have had in my life up to this moment in time.

This is the key to understanding the difference between the past simple and the present perfect. The past simple expresses something which happened at a specific time in the past. The present perfect expresses something that I have experienced in my life without giving the exact time.



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 74
[ چهارشنبه 14 اسفند 1392 ] [ چهارشنبه 14 اسفند 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Present Simple

Use the present simple to talk about activities or routines which take place on a regular basis.

Examples

I often go jogging on Saturdays.
He usually has coffee for breakfast.

Present Continuous

Use the present continuous to speak about what is happening at the present moment in time, around the present moment, or for a future scheduled event.

Examples

We're working on the Smith account this month.
She's watching TV at the moment.

Stative Verbs

Stative verbs are verbs which express a state. Action verbs are verbs which express something a person does.

Examples

I hope to see you soon. (stative verb) He is cooking dinner at the moment. (action verb)

Stative verbs cannot be used in the continuous forms. Here is a list of common stative verbs:

believe
understand
think (opinion)
want
hope
smell
taste
feel
sound
look
seem
appear



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 109
[ پنجشنبه 10 بهمن 1392 ] [ پنجشنبه 10 بهمن 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

Use the present continuous to speak about what is happening at the present moment in time.

Positive Form

Subject + to be + verb + ing + objects

Examples

He is watching TV.
They're playing tennis at the moment.

Negative Form

Subject + are not + verb + ing + objects

Examples

She isn't studying at the moment.
We aren't working now.

Question Form

Wh? + do + subject + verb + ing + objects ?

Examples

What are you doing?
Are you cooking dinner now?

NOTE: We use time expressions like 'at the moment, currently, this week - month' with this form of the present continuous.



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 55
[ پنجشنبه 10 بهمن 1392 ] [ پنجشنبه 10 بهمن 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

هنگامیکه میخواهیم گفته‌های شخص دیگری را نقل کنیم، می‌توانیم از دو حالت مختلف استفاده کنیم:

۱- می‌توانیم گفته‌های شخص مورد نظر را عیناً (واو به واو) تکرار کنیم (نقل قول مستقیم):

·         She said, ‘It is raining.’

و یا می‌توانیم از نقل قول غیر مستقیماستفاده کنیم:

·         She said that it was raining.

در مثال زیر به تغییرات ایجاد شده خوب دقت کنید:

 

 

 

۱- در نقل قول غیر مستقیم همیشه می‌توانیم that را حذف کنیم:

·         I told her (that) I wasn’t hungry.

·         He said (that) he was feeling ill.

2- پس از tell حتماً باید نام شخص مخاطب (اسم یا ضمیر) ذکر شود ولی پس از say چیزی نمی‌آید:

·         He told her that …

·         He said that …

 

– تفاوت home  و house

کلمه home اشاره به مکانی دارد که در آن زندگی می کنیم.

کلمه house را وقتی به کار می بریم که منظورمان تعیین قیمت، وسعت و یا خوبی و بدی خانه باشد.

After work I always go home.

There is no place like home.

They are building many new houses in our district.

This house is very expensive.

I paid a lot of money for a new house

– تفاوت beside و besides

Come and sit beside me (next to me).

در کنار، پهلوی = حرف اضافه

Besides this photograph, I have number of others (in addition to).

علاوه بر آن



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 54
[ جمعه 06 دي 1392 ] [ جمعه 06 دي 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

Use the past simple to talk about activities or routines which take place at a specified time in the past. Notice that all subjects take the same conjugation of the verb. Regular verbs end in '-ed'.

visit - visited
enjoy - enjoyed

Irregular verbs have various forms and each verb needs to be learned.

see - saw
think - thought

The past simple is used to express a finished past action which occurs at a specific moment in the past.

Examples

She visited Iran last month.
They didn't go to Tom's party last weekend.
Where did you go on vacation last summer?

The following time signifiers often indicate a specific point in time.

last
ago
in ... (plus a year or month)
yesterday
when ... (plus a phrase)

Examples

They had lunch at home last week.
He left the company many years ago.
Susan bought a new car in May.
He telephoned his friend in Rome yesterday.
I played golf when I was a teenager.

Positive Form

Subject + past form of verb + object(s) + time

Examples

They flew to Chicago last month.
Peter completed his course three weeks ago.

Negative Form

Subject + did + not + base form of verb + object(s) + (time)

Examples

They didn't expect to see you at Christmas.
She didn't understand the question.

Question Form

(Wh?) + did + subject + base form of verb + (object(s))+ (time)?

Examples

Where did you study French?
When did you arrive last week?



درباره : زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 68
[ پنجشنبه 05 دي 1392 ] [ پنجشنبه 05 دي 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

The present perfect is used to say what has happened recently and has an effect on the present moment. We often use 'just', 'yet' and 'already' to express the relationship to the present moment.

Examples

Have you seen Mary yet?
They've already had dinner.
She's just been to the dentist's.

The present perfect is also used to express something which has happened up to the present moment of time.

Examples

Have you worked here for a long time?
Peter's lived here since 1987.
She hasn't had much fun this week.

Positive Form

Subject + have + past participle + object(s)

Examples

Peter's lived here since 1987.
We've been very busy today.

Negative Form

Subject + have + not + past participle + object(s)

Examples

I haven't been to class very often this month.
She hasn't had much fun this week.

Question Form

(Wh?) + have + subject + past participle?

Examples

Have you worked here for a long time?
Where have you been?

Present Perfect for Unspecified Past

When speaking about an experience that has happened at an UNSPECIFIED point in time before the present moment use the present perfect.

Examples

I've been to New York three times.
They've lived in many places.
She's studied in London.

NOTE: In this use of the present perfect, we are talking about things that have happened up to the present moment. Whenever you speak about something that has happened up to now without giving a precise point in time, use the present perfect.

Use of 'For', 'Since' and 'How long'

Use 'for' to indicate a duration or period of time.

Examples

He has lived here for seven years.
We have been here for six weeks.
Shirley has played tennis for a long time.

Use 'since' to indicate a specific point in time.

Examples

I've worked here since 2004.
She's gone to dancing lessons since April.
They've been unhappy since they left college.

Use 'How long' in the question form to ask about duration.

Examples

How long have you played the piano?
How long has he worked here?
How long has she been with you?



درباره : زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 82
[ پنجشنبه 05 دي 1392 ] [ پنجشنبه 05 دي 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

کاربرد

ما از زمان گذشته کامل استفاده می‌کنیم تا نشان دهیم عملی پیش از عمل دیگری در گذشته اتفاق افتاده است (گذشته در گذشته). در واقع گذشته کامل معادل گذشته‌ی زمان حال کامل است. (با گذشته ساده مقایسه کنید).


به مقایسه بین زمانهای حال کامل و گذشته کامل توجه کنید:

گذشته کامل


حال کامل


* We weren’t hungry. We‘d just had dinner.

 * I didn’t know who he was. I‘d never seen him before.

* We aren’t hungry. We‘ve just had dinner.

* Who is that man? I‘ve never seen him before.

چند مثال دیگر از زمان گذشته کامل:

  • .It was the first time he had ever seen a tiger
  • .When I arrived at the cinema, the film had already begun
  • She didn’t want to go to the theatre with the others because she‘d seen the play before

مقایسه بین گذشته کامل و گذشته ساده

به تفاوت میان جملات زیر دقت کنید:

  • .When I arrived home, my wife went out
  • but: When I arrived home, my wife had gone out

·         ساختار

 جملات مثبت و منفی:

past participle

(قسمت سوم فعل)

had (‘d)

had not (hadn’t)

I, you, we, they

he, she, it

جملات پرسشی:

past participle

(قسمت سوم فعل)?

I, you, we, they

he, she, it

had

hadn’t



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 61
[ شنبه 23 آذر 1392 ] [ شنبه 23 آذر 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

از حال استمراري براي بيان يک برنامه يا يک قرار بين افراد در آينده استفاده مي‌شود و معمولاً به آينده نزديک اشاره دارد:

  • I'm meeting my friend this evening.
    (امروز بعدازظهر دوستم را ملاقات مي‌کنم)
  • They are driving to Scotland at the weekend.
    (آنها آخر هفته به اسکاتلند مي‌روند)

گاهي اوقات تفاوتي نمي‌کند که براي بيان يک برنامه يا قرار از حال استمراري و يا از ساختار be going to استفاده شود، به عنوان مثال:

  • We're going to see a play tonight.
    or: We're seeing a play tonight.

 

4- راه‌هاي ديگر بيان آينده

راه‌هاي ديگري نيز براي صحبت درباره‌ آينده وجود دارد، به عنوان مثال:

a) Will + be + verb-ing

  • Next week I'll be talking about how to use a microscope.
    (هفته آينده درباره نحوه استفاده از ميکروسکوپ صحبت خواهم کرد)

b) Be + to + verb

  • Iranian president is to visit Russia.
    (رئيس جمهور ايران از روسيه بازديد مي‌کند)

c) Be + about + to + verb

The mayor is about to announce the result of election.
(شهردار به زودي نتايج انتخابات را اعلام خواهد کرد)



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 36
[ چهارشنبه 20 آذر 1392 ] [ چهارشنبه 20 آذر 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

1) finish              2) finished                     3) had finished               4) will finish

    2-Afshin’s father wants him to get home before it …….. dark.

1)got                     2) gets              3) getting                                  4) will get

    3-“Let’s get off”

“Don’t be in a hurry. You shouldn’t get off the train before it “…….…”

1) stops             2) stopped              3) will be stopped                      4) will stop

 4- At this moment I ……….we have a good chance of victory.

1) feel                        2) am feeling             3)  felt                          4) am felt

 5- Mr. Smith …..to his office in his car every morning.

1) went                         2) goes                    3) is going                         4)go

 6- In autumn the trees …..their leaves.

1)are losing                   2) are lost                3) lose                      4) have lost

  7- “Is he studying now?”

      “No, he is not. He …….in the afternoon.”

1) doesn’t study             2) not study                3) study                 4) don’t study

 8- The child always cries when her mother ……out of the house.

1)went                          2) had gone                   3) goes                  4) will go

 9- “Doesn’t Mehdi want to sell his car?”  “Yes , He…………”

1)does                    2) doesn’t                     3) sells                          4) wants

  10- “Who can pass the exam?”     “Every body unless they ……..hard enough”

    1) don’t work                        2) work                3) worked              4) won’t work

 11-“Will you pay for my lunch today?” “Not unless you ……..to pay for mine tomorrow.”

1)promise           2) promised            3) will promise          4) would promise

 12-“Are you usually awake at mid night?”

       “No, I ……..until midnight.”

1) am never staying up                                        2) never stay up

3) never stayed up                                             4) might never stay up

 13-“ How long are you going to stay?”      “I’ll wait for him until he …..”

1) comes back                                       2) has come back

3) is going to come back                        4) will come back

 14- At the moment he ………to be getting better.

1) has seemed               2) seems              3) seemed               4) had seemed

15- I ….cook my own meal .

1)often does             2) often have to          3)have to often           4)have often

 16- I see that you ……. your new suit today.

1) are wearing           2) were wearing         3) are worn          4)be were worn

  17- “Does she still live in Tehran?”        “yes , she ….”.

1) is living there still                               2) is still living there

3) still is there living                               4) there is still living

  18- Look! That boy …..to break the window.

1) tries              2) is trying                    3) tried                          4) is tried

 19- “ Is the class busy?”          “Yes , the student are ……. pronunciation.”

1) practice         2) practiced          3) practices                      4) practicing

  20- Just now he ….. his dinner but he says he’ll see you when he’s finished.

1)has had              2) was having                3) is having                        4) had

21- Many countries …..to solve such problems nowadays.

1) are trying                  2) will try                      3) tried                          4) try

 22- Listen! The telephone……

1) ring                           2) rings          3) are ringing                 4) is ringing

  23- They ……to the radio at present.

1) listen                    2) are listening          3) have listened          4) is listening

 24- Listen! Someone …… upstairs.

1) walks               2) was walking              3) walked              4) is walking

    25- “Has he ever been here before?”

        “No , he says that he …….tomorrow.”

1)would came               2) was walking              3) walked             4) is walking

26- Be quiet or you will wake father up, he……..

1)slept              2) sleeps                   3) is sleeping                 4) can sleep

  27- My great grand father …….. a new house nowadays.

1) builds               2) is building                  3)had built                        4) built

 28- Mehdi can’t have the newspaper now because his aunt…….it

1) reads          2) has read                    3) is reading                  4)will read

 29- I think he …..his supper at the moment.

1) has                           2) having                       3)is having                   4) had

 30- For the time being he …..in Shiraz.

1) is studying                 2) will study      3) studied                4) studies

31- “Do you like Dr Irani’s new book?”    “Yes , it’s the best book he……….”.

1) is ever writing      2) has ever written      3) had ever written        4)was ever writin

  32- “Has anybody called today?”

        “The telephone has not rung…. I came”.

1) before               2) for                            3) since                        4) until

  33- I ……to the cinema since last month.

1)didn’t go             2) hadn’t gone   3) haven’t gone             4) wouldn’t go

  34- Since the beginning of the term, we ……a lot of time on tenses.

1) are spending              2) have spent    3) spend                         4) will spend

  35- I ….him so angry.

1)never have seen         2)have never seen         3)am never seeing          4)never am seeing

  36- He ….those jobs since he started work five years ago.

1) was having                2) has had         3) would have had          4) had had

  37- Since when ……….absent from class?

1) is he                  2) was he            3) has he been               4) had he been

  38- I wonder how Ali’s trip was. I don’t know. I haven’t seen him……..

1) since he arrived         2) until he arrived    3) when he arrived   4) by the time he arrived

39- “Do you still work at the library?”     “Oh , no I …there for the last two months.”

1) don’t work      2) didn’t work      3) haven’t worked      4) won’t have worked

  40- I knew everything about the mysterious letter, but up to now I ….to anybody about it.

1) didn’t speak      2) won’t speak  3) haven’t spoken           4) wouldn’t speak

  41- Poor mummy …….the dishes in the kitchen for an hour and there are still plenty of them unwashed.

1) washes           2) washed                     3) is washing                 4) has been washin

42- A: Please call John and tell him we can’t go to visit him today.

        B: But , he …..for us since this morning.

1) was waiting     2) is waiting  3) has been waiting        4) will been waiting

 43- Teacher : you look hot, Mary?

        Mary: I ….all the way to school to be on time.

1) am running      2) had run         3) would run          4) have been running

 44-  “ I can’t decide on which color to buy”

         “You ….for ages, I can’t wait for ever”

1)would hesitate     2) are hesitating      3) hesitating       4) have been hesitating

    45- The patients ……in hospital since 8 o’clock.

1)were waiting              2) have been waited      3)are waiting     4)have been waiting

   46- She …for an hour, and she isn’t tired yet.

1) talks                  2) has talked       3)have built                   4) has been talking

 47- The workers …..that bridge for over a year, but it is not finished yet.

1) are building               2) built              3) have built      4) have been building

48- The children playing volleyball over there ..since half past eight.

1) are playing       2) have been playing      3) had been playing       4) had played

 49- My friend Parviz …..on this difficult problem since 8 o’clock.

1) has been working                              2) had been working

3) is working                                         4) was working

  50- I ……. Mr. Duke because he speaks so fast.

1) never will understand                                     2) never understood

3) have never understood                                   4) has never understood

 

 



درباره : نمونه سوال زبان اول نظري , نمونه سوال زبان دوم نظري , گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 100
[ سه شنبه 19 آذر 1392 ] [ سه شنبه 19 آذر 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

کاربرد

۱- برای بیان عملی که در گذشته آغاز شده و همچنان ادامه دارد:


  • I have studied English since 1990 (از سال ۱۹۹۰ به مطالعه انگلیسی پرداخته‌ام)
  • She‘s lived in Tehran for 10 years (او به مدت ۱۰ سال در تهران زندگی کرده است)
  • ?How long have you lived in Tehran (چه مدتی در تهران زندگی کرده‌اید؟)
  • I‘ve lived in Tehran all my life (همه عمرم را در تهران زندگی کرده‌ام)
   

توجه‌ داشته ‌باشید که در زمان حال کامل، غالباً از اصطلاحات زمانی خاصی مانند since و for استفاده می‌شود.

forنشان دهنده دوره‌ای از زمان است که تا کنون ادامه داشته است، ولی sinceبا مقطعی از زمان به کار می‌رود و به معنی «از آن زمان تا کنون» می‌باشد:

seven o’clock

 

since

a year

 

I have been here for

1980

two months

September

three hours

last week

ten minutes

2- برای بیان تجربه‌ای که در زمانی در زندگی شخصی اتفاق افتاده است. در واقع این عمل در گذشته روی داده و به پایان رسیده است، اما آثار آن هنوز محسوس است. این که این عمل یا تجربه چه موقعی روی داده، مهم نیست:

  • I have never been to England (من هرگز به انگلستان نرفته‌ام)
  • She has had several operations up to now (تا کنون چندین عمل جراحی داشته است)
  • He‘s written a lot of short stories(او داستانهای کوتاه زیادی نوشته است)

۳- برای بیان عملی که در گذشته نزدیک اتفاق افتاده ولی اثر آن در زمان حال مشاهده می‌شود. در این حالت از yet، already، still و just بسیار استفاده می‌کنیم:

   

از already بیشتر در جملات مثبت و از yet  بیشتر در جملات منفی و پرسشی استفاده می‌شود.

  • Ive just had a sandwich. (من تازه یک ساندویچ خورده‌ام)
  • I’ve already seen the movie. (این فیلم را قبلاً دیده‌ام)
  • The bus hasn’t arrived yet. (اتوبوس هنوز نرسیده است)
  • I still haven’t finished my homework. (هنوز تکالیفم را تمام نکرده‌ام)

 

   

1- اگر ارتباطی با زمان حال موجود نیست (مثلاًچیزهایی که مدتها قبل اتفاق افتاده‌اند) از حال کامل استفاده نکنید.

  • Hafiz wasa Persian poet. Hewrotemany poems.
  • but:My father is a writer. Hehas writtenmany books.

در مثال اول از گذشته ساده استفاده کردیم تا نشان دهیم که او (حافظ) دیگر شعر نمی‌نویسد، ولی در مثال دوم برای اینکه نشان دهیم که او هنوز کتاب می‌نویسد از حال کامل استفاده کردیم.

۲- ما از حال کامل برای ارائه اطلاعات جدید استفاده می‌کنیم. ولی اگر بخواهیم به صحبتمان درباره آن ادامه دهیم، معمولاً از گذشته ساده استفاده می‌کنیم:

A: “Ben has broken his leg.”

B: “Really? How did that happen?”

A: “He fell off a ladder.”

ساختار زمان حال کامل

 جملات مثبت و منفی:

past participle

(قسمت سوم فعل)

have (‘ve)
have not (haven’t)

I, you, we, they

has (‘s)
has not (hasn’t)

he, she, it

جملات پرسشی:

past participle

(قسمت سوم فعل)?

I, you, we, they

have

he, she, it

has

چند مثال:

  • Weve beento Paris
  • Hehasn’t livedin Paris
  • ?Haveyoumethim yet


درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 56
[ دوشنبه 18 آذر 1392 ] [ دوشنبه 18 آذر 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

از فعل کمکی will برای نشان دادن آینده در جهت‌های زیر استفاده می‌شود:

الف- پیش‌بینی: برای توصیف چیزی که می‌دانیم، یا انتظار داریم که اتفاق بیفتد:

  • It will be rainy tomorrow.
    (فردا هوا بارانی خواهد بود)
  • You will be sick if you eat all those sweets.
    (اگر همه آن شیرینی‌ها را بخوری مریض می‌شوی)

ب- بیان تصمیمی که درست در همان لحظه گرفته شده است:

  • I will answer the phone.
    (من تلفن را جواب می‌دهم)
  • I‘ll see you tomorrow. bye!
    (فردا می‌بینمت.خداحافظ)

·         زمانهای مربوط به آینده

·         در زبان انگلیسی برای بیان زمان آینده از افعال و حالتهای مختلفی استفاده می‌شود که آنها را به ترتیب اهمیت در زیر می‌بینید:

·         ۱٫ will + verb

·         2. be + going to + verb

·         3. Present Progressive (حال استمراری)

·         ۴٫ will + be + verb-ing و فرمهای دیگر

·          

قابلیت های مختلف افعال کمکی

۱- برای منفی کردن یک جمله کافی است پس از فعل کمکی، not اضافه کنید و یا از حالت مخفف آن استفاده کنید:

 She will come She will not (won’t) come

2- برای پرسشی کردن یک جمله، فعل کمکی را قبل از فاعل جمله قرار دهید:

? She will come Will she come

3- گاهی می‌توان فعل اصلی پس از فعل کمکی را حذف کرد به شرط آنکه معنی آن (با توجه به شرایط) واضح باشد:

  • ‘Will she come tonight?’ ‘No, she can’t.’ (=’she can’t come.’)

‘?I’ve never been to China. Have you’



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 34
[ یکشنبه 17 آذر 1392 ] [ یکشنبه 17 آذر 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

راه‌های دیگری نیز برای صحبت درباره‌ آینده وجود دارد، به عنوان مثال:

a) Will + be + verb-ing

  • Next week I‘ll be talking about how to use a microscope.
    (هفته آینده درباره نحوه استفاده از میکروسکوپ صحبت خواهم کرد)

b) Be + to + verb

  • Iranian president is to visit Russia.
    (رئیس جمهور ایران از روسیه بازدید می‌کند)

c) Be + about + to + verb

The mayor is about to announce the result of election.
(شهردار به زودی نتایج انتخابات را اعلام خواهد کرد)

- حال استمراری (Present Progressive)

از حال استمراری برای بیان یک برنامه یا یک قرار بین افراد در آینده استفاده می‌شود و معمولاً به آینده نزدیک اشاره دارد:

  • I‘m meeting my friend this evening.
    (امروز بعدازظهر دوستم را ملاقات می‌کنم)
  • They are driving to Scotland at the weekend.
    (آنها آخر هفته به اسکاتلند می‌روند)

گاهی اوقات تفاوتی نمی‌کند که برای بیان یک برنامه یا قرار از حال استمراری و یا از ساختار be going to استفاده شود، به عنوان مثال:

  • We‘re going to see a play tonight.
    or: We’re seeing a play tonight.


۲- be + going to + verb

الف- از این ساختار برای بیان برنامه‌ها و تصمیماتی که از قبل گرفته شده‌اند، استفاده می‌شود:

  • We‘re going to paint this room blue.
    (ما می‌خواهیم این اتاق را آبی بزنیم)
  • I‘m going to be a doctor.
    (می‌خواهم یک دکتر بشوم)

ب- همچنین از این ساختار می‌توان برای بیان یک پیشگویی، مخصوصاً وقتی که براساس مدرکی در زمان حال باشد، استفاده نمود.

  • She‘s going to have a baby. (Because she’s pregnant)
    (او قرار است که یک بچه بدنیا بیاورد)
  • It‘s going to rain. (It’s cloudy)
    (می‌خواهد باران ببارد)

بعضی اوقات تفاوتی بین will و be going to برای یک پیش‌بینی وجود ندارد.

   

برای بیان تصمیمی که از قبل گرفته شده است از ساختـار be going to و بیان تصمیمی که درست در همان لحظه گرفته شده است از will استفاده می‌کنیم.



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 31
[ یکشنبه 17 آذر 1392 ] [ یکشنبه 17 آذر 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

جملات شرطی نوع سوم

از این نوع جملات شرطی برای تصور گذشته‌ای غیر ممکن استفاده می‌شود. در واقع در این نوع جملات، گوینده آرزوی یک گذشته متفاوت را دارد. (ولی به هر حال گذشته‌ها گذشته!)

if + گذشته کامل + would have + قسمت سوم فعل (p.p.) + ….

  • If I‘d seen you, I would have said hello.
    (اگر تو را دیده بودم، سلام می‌دادم)
  • If he had driven more carefully, he wouldn’t have been injured.
    (اگر با دقت بیشتری رانندگی کرده بود، مجروح نمی‌شد)
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have gone to visit you.
    (اگر می‌دانستم شما در بیمارستان بستری بودید می‌آمدم و شما را ملاقات می‌کردم)
  • I would have gone to see him if I had known that he was ill.
    (اگر می‌دانستم بیمار بود می‌رفتم و به او سر می‌زدم)
   

۱- در این نوع جملات می‌توان بجای would از could یا  might هم استفاده کرد:

  • If the weather hadn’t been so bad, wecould/mighthave gone out.

2- از would فقط می‌توان در عبارت اصلی استفاده کرد و در عبارت شرطی نباید آن را به کار برد:

  • If I had seen you, I would have said hello. (not: ‘If I would have seen you

جملات شرطی نوع دوم

از جملات شرطی نوع دوم برای بیان یک شرط یا موقعیت غیر واقعی یا غیر ممکن و نتیجه محتمل آن در زمان حال یا آینده بکار می‌رود. در واقع در این نوع جملات حال یا آینده‌ای متفاوت را تصور می‌کنیم.

if

گذشته ساده

would (‘d)
would not (wouldn’t)

مصدر بدون to

if

I had more money, I

would (‘d)

buy a new car.

if

you lived in England, you

would (‘d)

soon learn English.

چند مثال دیگر:

  • If he needed any money, I‘d lend it to him. (But he doesn’t need it)
    (اگر به پول احتیاج داشت به او قرض می‌دادم)
  • If I had more time, I‘d help you. (اگر وقت بیشتری داشتم به شما کمک می‌کردم)
  • If I were* a rich man, I‘d buy an expensive car.
    (اگر ثروتمند بودم یک ماشین گرانقیمت می‌خریدم)
  • I wouldn’t accept the job (even) if they offered it to me.
    (اگر آن کار را به من پیشنهاد می‌کردند هم قبول نمی‌کردم)
   

* در این نوع جملات، اغلب بجای was از were استفاده می‌شود:

  • If I wereliving in Tehran, we could meet more often

 

جملات شرطی نوع اول

از جملات شرطی نوع اول برای بیان یک شرط (یا موقعیت) ممکن و یک نتیجه محتمل در آینده استفاده می‌شود.

if

حال ساده

will/won’t

مصدر بدون to

if

I work hard,

I will

pass my exams.

  • If I find your watch, I will tell you. (.اگر ساعت شما را پیدا کنم به شما خواهم گفت)
  • If we leave now, we‘ll catch the 10.30 train.
    (اگر حالا حرکت کنیم به قطار ساعت
    ۱۰:۳۰ می‌رسیم)
  • If I see him, I‘ll tell him the news. (.اگر او را ببینم خبرها را به او خواهم گفت)
  • You‘ll get wet if you don’t take an umbrella. (.اگر چتر نبری خیس خواهی شد)
   

علاوه بر will می‌توان از should ،must ،can ،might ،may و غیره نیز استفاده کرد که در این صورت معنی آن کمی فرق خواهد کرد:

  • If you pull the cat’s tail, itmayscratch you.
    (اگر دم گربه را بکشی ممکن است تو را چنگ بزند )
  • Youshouldeat less rice if you want to lose weight.
    (اگر می‌خواهی وزن کم کنی باید کمتر برنج بخوری)


درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 55
[ یکشنبه 17 آذر 1392 ] [ یکشنبه 17 آذر 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

در جملات معلوم (active)، فاعل به عامل یا کننده عمل فعل دلالت دارد. در واقع ما از افعال معلوم برای بیان اینکه فاعل چه کاری را انجام دهد استفاده می‌کنیم. به این مثالها توجه کنید:

  • The dog chased the cat. (سگ گربه را دنبال کرد)
  • My father built this house in 1960. (پدرم این خانه را در سال ۱۹۶۰ ساخت)

ولی جملات مجهول (passive) به ما این اجازه را می‌دهند که کسی یا چیزی را که کننده یا انجام دهنده عملی نیست (غیر عامل) در جای فاعل قرار دهیم. در واقع از افعال مجهول برای بیان اینکه چه عملی بر روی فاعل اتفاق می‌افتد، استفاده می‌شود:

 

  • The cat was chased by the dog. (گربه توسط سگ دنبال شد)
  • This house was built in 1960. (این خانه در سال ۱۹۶۰ ساخته شد)

هنگام استفاده از حالت مجهول، توجه داشته باشید که در اغلب موارد اینکه چه کسی یا چه چیزی عمل را انجام می‌دهد نا معلوم یا بی‌اهمیت است. مثلاً در جمله زیر اینکه چه کسی اتاق را تمیز می‌کند برای گوینده اهمیتی ندارد:

  • This room is cleaned every day. (این اتاق هر روز تمیز می‌شود)

ولی اگر بخواهیم بیان کنیم که چه کسی (یا چه چیزی) آن عمل را انجام داده است، در این صورت باید از حرف اضافه by استفاده کنیم:

 
  • This housewas builtbymy father.
    (این خانه توسط پدرم ساخته شد)
  • This picturewas paintedbya great painter.


درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 29
[ یکشنبه 17 آذر 1392 ] [ یکشنبه 17 آذر 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

ساختار

بطور کلی برای ساخت صیغه مجهول فعل معلوم، فعل to be را به همان زمان فعل معلوم می‌آوریم و اسم مفعول همان فعل را به آن می‌افزاییم:

  • معلوم: Somebody cleans this room every day.
  • مجهول: This room is cleaned every day.
  • معلوم: He bought this car last week.
  • مجهول: This car was bought last week.

در جدول زیر می‌توانید فهرست افعال معلوم و معادل مجهول آنها را ملاحظه کنید:

زمان

معلوم

مجهول

حال ساده

keeps
نگه می‌دارد

is kept
نگهداری می‌شود

حال استمراری

is keeping
دارد نگه می‌دارد

is being kept
در حال نگهداری شدن است

گذشته ساده

kept
نگه داشت

was kept
نگهداری شد

گذشته استمراری

was keeping
داشت نگه می‌داشت

was being kept
در حال نگهداری شدن بود

حال کامل

has kept
نگه داشته است

has been kept
نگهداری شده است

گذشته کامل

had kept
نگه داشته بود

had been kept
نگهداری شده بود

آینده

will keep
نگه خواهد داشت

will be kept
نگهداری خواهد شد

شرطی

would keep
نگه می‌داشت

would be kept
نگهداری می‌شد

شرطی کامل

would have kept
نگه داشته بودند

would have been kept
نگهداری شده بود

مصدر

to keep
نگه داشتن

to be kept
نگهداری شدن

مصدر حال کامل

to have kept
نگه داشتن

to have been kept
نگهداری شدن

وجه مصدری اسم مصدر

keeping
نگهداری

being kept
نگهداری شدن

 

 



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 44
[ یکشنبه 17 آذر 1392 ] [ یکشنبه 17 آذر 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

  1-Don’t ask for another book until You …… this one.

1) finish              2) finished                     3) had finished               4) will finish

    2-Afshin’s father wants him to get home before it …….. dark.

1)got                     2) gets              3) getting                                  4) will get

    3-“Let’s get off”

“Don’t be in a hurry. You shouldn’t get off the train before it “…….…”

1) stops             2) stopped              3) will be stopped                      4) will stop

 4- At this moment I ……….we have a good chance of victory.

1) feel                        2) am feeling             3)  felt                          4) am felt

 5- Mr. Smith …..to his office in his car every morning.

1) went                         2) goes                    3) is going                         4)go

 6- In autumn the trees …..their leaves.

1)are losing                   2) are lost                3) lose                      4) have lost

  7- “Is he studying now?”

      “No, he is not. He …….in the afternoon.”

1) doesn’t study             2) not study                3) study                 4) don’t study

 8- The child always cries when her mother ……out of the house.

1)went                          2) had gone                   3) goes                  4) will go

 9- “Doesn’t Mehdi want to sell his car?”  “Yes , He…………”

1)does                    2) doesn’t                     3) sells                          4) wants

  10- “Who can pass the exam?”     “Every body unless they ……..hard enough”

    1) don’t work                        2) work                3) worked              4) won’t work

 11-“Will you pay for my lunch today?” “Not unless you ……..to pay for mine tomorrow.”

1)promise           2) promised            3) will promise          4) would promise

 12-“Are you usually awake at mid night?”

       “No, I ……..until midnight.”

1) am never staying up                                        2) never stay up

3) never stayed up                                             4) might never stay up

 13-“ How long are you going to stay?”      “I’ll wait for him until he …..”

1) comes back                                       2) has come back

3) is going to come back                        4) will come back

 14- At the moment he ………to be getting better.

1) has seemed               2) seems              3) seemed               4) had seemed

15- I ….cook my own meal .

1)often does             2) often have to          3)have to often           4)have often

 16- I see that you ……. your new suit today.

1) are wearing           2) were wearing         3) are worn          4)be were worn

  17- “Does she still live in Tehran?”        “yes , she ….”.

1) is living there still                               2) is still living there

3) still is there living                               4) there is still living

  18- Look! That boy …..to break the window.

1) tries              2) is trying                    3) tried                          4) is tried

 19- “ Is the class busy?”          “Yes , the student are ……. pronunciation.”

1) practice         2) practiced          3) practices                      4) practicing

  20- Just now he ….. his dinner but he says he’ll see you when he’s finished.

1)has had              2) was having                3) is having                        4) had

21- Many countries …..to solve such problems nowadays.

1) are trying                  2) will try                      3) tried                          4) try

 22- Listen! The telephone……

1) ring                           2) rings          3) are ringing                 4) is ringing

  23- They ……to the radio at present.

1) listen                    2) are listening          3) have listened          4) is listening

 24- Listen! Someone …… upstairs.

1) walks               2) was walking              3) walked              4) is walking

    25- “Has he ever been here before?”

        “No , he says that he …….tomorrow.”

1)would came               2) was walking              3) walked             4) is walking

26- Be quiet or you will wake father up, he……..

1)slept              2) sleeps                   3) is sleeping                 4) can sleep

  27- My great grand father …….. a new house nowadays.

1) builds               2) is building                  3)had built                        4) built

 28- Mehdi can’t have the newspaper now because his aunt…….it

1) reads          2) has read                    3) is reading                  4)will read

 29- I think he …..his supper at the moment.

1) has                           2) having                       3)is having                   4) had

 30- For the time being he …..in Shiraz.

1) is studying                 2) will study      3) studied                4) studies

31- “Do you like Dr Irani’s new book?”    “Yes , it’s the best book he……….”.

1) is ever writing      2) has ever written      3) had ever written        4)was ever writin

  32- “Has anybody called today?”

        “The telephone has not rung…. I came”.

1) before               2) for                            3) since                        4) until

  33- I ……to the cinema since last month.

1)didn’t go             2) hadn’t gone   3) haven’t gone             4) wouldn’t go

  34- Since the beginning of the term, we ……a lot of time on tenses.

1) are spending              2) have spent    3) spend                         4) will spend

  35- I ….him so angry.

1)never have seen         2)have never seen         3)am never seeing          4)never am seeing

  36- He ….those jobs since he started work five years ago.

1) was having                2) has had         3) would have had          4) had had

  37- Since when ……….absent from class?

1) is he                  2) was he            3) has he been               4) had he been

  38- I wonder how Ali’s trip was. I don’t know. I haven’t seen him……..

1) since he arrived         2) until he arrived    3) when he arrived   4) by the time he arrived

39- “Do you still work at the library?”     “Oh , no I …there for the last two months.”

1) don’t work      2) didn’t work      3) haven’t worked      4) won’t have worked

  40- I knew everything about the mysterious letter, but up to now I ….to anybody about it.

1) didn’t speak      2) won’t speak  3) haven’t spoken           4) wouldn’t speak

  41- Poor mummy …….the dishes in the kitchen for an hour and there are still plenty of them unwashed.

1) washes           2) washed                     3) is washing                 4) has been washin

42- A: Please call John and tell him we can’t go to visit him today.

        B: But , he …..for us since this morning.

1) was waiting     2) is waiting  3) has been waiting        4) will been waiting

 43- Teacher : you look hot, Mary?

        Mary: I ….all the way to school to be on time.

1) am running      2) had run         3) would run          4) have been running

 44-  “ I can’t decide on which color to buy”

         “You ….for ages, I can’t wait for ever”

1)would hesitate     2) are hesitating      3) hesitating       4) have been hesitating

    45- The patients ……in hospital since 8 o’clock.

1)were waiting              2) have been waited      3)are waiting     4)have been waiting

   46- She …for an hour, and she isn’t tired yet.

1) talks                  2) has talked       3)have built                   4) has been talking

 47- The workers …..that bridge for over a year, but it is not finished yet.

1) are building               2) built              3) have built      4) have been building

48- The children playing volleyball over there ..since half past eight.

1) are playing       2) have been playing      3) had been playing       4) had played

 49- My friend Parviz …..on this difficult problem since 8 o’clock.

1) has been working                              2) had been working

3) is working                                         4) was working

  50- I ……. Mr. Duke because he speaks so fast.

1) never will understand                                     2) never understood

3) have never understood                                   4) has never understood

 

 

     


درباره : نمونه سوال زبان اول نظري , نمونه سوال زبان دوم نظري , نمونه سوال زبان سوم نظري , نمونه سوال زبان پيش دانشگاهي يك , نمونه سوالات زبان پيش دانشگاهي دو , گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 54
[ شنبه 16 آذر 1392 ] [ شنبه 16 آذر 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

ساختار

coming

doing

going

taking

‘m

am

I

‘re

are

you

we

they

‘s

is

he

she

it

کاربرد

۱- برای بیان عملی که هم‌اکنون جریان دارد:

  • She is watching the TV.
  • He is working at the moment.

2- برای بیان عملی یا موقعیتی که در حال حاضر در حال وقوع می‌باشد، اما الزاماً در همین زمان صحبت کردن در حال رخ دادن نیست:

  • I‘m reading an exciting book.
  • He is learning Arabic.

(توجه داشته باشید که مثلاً در جمله‌ اول، شخص گوینده ممکن است در همین لحظه مشغول مطالعه کتاب باشد و یا اینکه ممکن است منظورش این باشد که مدتی است مشغول مطالعه کتاب است ولی هنوز تمام نشده است.)

۳- برای بیان قراری تعیین شده در آینده:

  • I am meeting him at the park.

4- برای بیان کار یا شرایطی موقتی:

  • I‘m living in a small flat now, but I’m trying to find a better one.
    (در حال حاضر در یک آپارتمان کوچک زندگی می‌کنم، اما دارم سعی می‌کنم یک بهترش را پیدا کنم


درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 35
[ پنجشنبه 14 آذر 1392 ] [ پنجشنبه 14 آذر 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 


در زبان انگليسي براي بيان زمان آينده از افعال و حالتهاي مختلفي استفاده مي‌شود که آنها را به ترتيب اهميت در زير مي‌بينيد:

1. will + verb

2. be + going to + verb

3. Present Progressive (حال استمراری)

4. will + be + verb-ing و فرمهاي ديگر

 


1- will + verb

از فعل کمکي will براي نشان دادن آينده در جهت‌هاي زير استفاده مي‌شود:

الف- پيش‌بيني: براي توصيف چيزي که مي‌دانيم، يا انتظار داريم که اتفاق بيفتد:

·         It will be rainy tomorrow.
 (فردا هوا باراني خواهد بود)

·         You will be sick if you eat all those sweets.
 (اگر همه آن شيريني‌ها را بخوري مريض مي‌شوي)

ب- بيان تصميمي كه درست در همان لحظه گرفته شده است:

  • I will answer the phone.
    (من تلفن را جواب مي‌دهم)
  • I'll see you tomorrow. bye!
    (فردا مي‌بينمت.خداحافظ)

 

2- be + going to + verb

الف- از اين ساختار براي بيان برنامه‌ها و تصميماتي که از قبل گرفته شده‌اند، استفاده مي‌شود:

  • We're going to paint this room blue.
    (ما مي‌خواهيم اين اتاق را آبي بزنيم)
  • I'm going to be a doctor.
    (مي‌خواهم يک دکتر بشوم)

ب- همچنين از اين ساختار مي‌توان براي بيان يک پيشگويي، مخصوصاً وقتي که براساس مدرکي در زمان حال باشد، استفاده نمود.

  • She's going to have a baby. (Because she's pregnant)
    (او قرار است كه يك بچه بدنيا بياورد)
  • It's going to rain. (It's cloudy)
    (مي‌خواهد باران ببارد)

بعضي اوقات تفاوتي بين will و be going to براي يك پيش‌بيني وجود ندارد.



براي بيان تصميمي که از قبل گرفته شده است از ساختـار be going to و بيان تصميمي که درست در همان لحظه گرفته شده است از will استفاده مي‌کنيم.

 

 



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 44
[ پنجشنبه 04 مهر 1392 ] [ پنجشنبه 04 مهر 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 


 

در جملات معلوم (active)، فاعل به عامل يا کننده عمل فعل دلالت دارد. در واقع ما از افعال معلوم براي بيان اينکه فاعل چه کاري را انجام دهد استفاده مي‌کنيم. به اين مثالها توجه کنيد:

  • The dog chased the cat. (سگ گربه را دنبال کرد)
  • My father built this house in 1960. (پدرم اين خانه را در سال 1960 ساخت)

ولي جملات مجهول (passive) به ما اين اجازه را مي‌دهند که کسي يا چيزي را که کننده يا انجام دهنده عملي نيست (غير عامل) در جاي فاعل قرار دهيم. در واقع از افعال مجهول براي بيان اينکه چه عملي بر روي فاعل اتفاق مي‌افتد، استفاده مي‌شود:

 

افعال مجهول

 

  • The cat was chased by the dog. (گربه توسط سگ دنبال شد)
  • This house was built in 1960. (اين خانه در سال 1960 ساخته شد)

هنگام استفاده از حالت مجهول، توجه داشته باشيد که در اغلب موارد اينکه چه کسي يا چه چيزي عمل را انجام مي‌دهد نا معلوم يا بي‌اهميت است. مثلاً در جمله زير اينکه چه کسي اتاق را تميز مي‌کند براي گوينده اهميتي ندارد:

  • This room is cleaned every day. (اين اتاق هر روز تميز مي‌شود)

ولي اگر بخواهيم بيان کنيم که چه کسي (يا چه چيزي) آن عمل را انجام داده است، در اين صورت بايد از حرف اضافه by استفاده کنيم:

 

افعال معلوم و مجهول

  • This house was built by my father.
     (اين خانه توسط پدرم ساخته شد)
  • This picture was painted by a great painter.
    (اين نقاشي توسط يک نقاش بزرگ کشيده شده )

 

ساختار

بطور کلي براي ساخت صيغه مجهول فعل معلوم، فعل to be را به همان زمان فعل معلوم مي‌آوريم و اسم مفعول همان فعل را به آن مي‌افزاييم:

  • معلوم: Somebody cleans this room every day.
  • مجهول: This room is cleaned every day.
  • معلوم: He bought this car last week.
  • مجهول: This car was bought last week.

در جدول زير مي‌توانيد فهرست افعال معلوم و معادل مجهول آنها را ملاحظه کنيد:

 

زمان

معلوم

مجهول

حال ساده

keeps
نگه مي‌دارد

is kept
   نگهداري مي‌شود

حال استمراري

is keeping
دارد نگه مي‌دارد

is being kept
در حال نگهداري شدن است

گذشته ساده

kept
نگه داشت

was kept
نگهداري شد

گذشته استمراري

was keeping
داشت نگه مي‌داشت

was being kept
در حال نگهداري شدن بود

حال کامل

has kept
نگه داشته است

has been kept
نگهداري شده است

گذشته کامل

had kept
نگه داشته بود

had been kept
نگهداري شده بود

آينده

will keep
نگه خواهد داشت

will be kept
نگهداري خواهد شد

شرطي

would keep
نگه مي‌داشت

would be kept
نگهداري مي‌شد

شرطي کامل

would have kept
نگه داشته بودند

would have been kept
نگهداري شده بود

مصدر

to keep
نگه داشتن

to be kept
نگهداري شدن

مصدر حال کامل

to have kept
نگه داشتن

to have been kept
نگهداري شدن

وجه مصدري اسم مصدر

keeping
نگهداري

being kept
نگهداري شدن



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 76
[ جمعه 08 شهريور 1392 ] [ جمعه 08 شهريور 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

جملات شرطي شامل دو قسمت مي‌باشند: يکي عبارت شرطي و ديگري عبارت اصلي. عبارتي که حاوي if باشد را عبارت شرطي و عبارت ديگر را عبارت اصلي مي‌ناميم.

رويدادي که در عبارت اصلي توصيف مي‌شود بستگي به شرطي دارد که در عبارت شرطي بيان مي‌شود.

 

 we will get wet.

If it rains this evening,

عبارت اصلي

عبارت شرطي

عبارت شرطي مي‌تواند در انتهاي جمله نيز بيايد، ولي در اين صورت علامت ويرگول (,) حذف مي‌شود:

 if you press this button.

The door opens

عبارت شرطي

عبارت اصلي

به طور کلي سه نوع جمله شرطي وجود دارد:


 

جملات شرطي نوع اول

از جملات شرطي نوع اول براي بيان يک شرط (يا موقعيت) ممکن و يک نتيجه محتمل در آينده استفاده مي‌شود.

if

حال ساده

will/won't

مصدر بدون to

if

I work hard,

I will

pass my exams.

  • If I find your watch, I will tell you. (.اگر ساعت شما را پيدا کنم به شما خواهم گفت)
  • If we leave now, we'll catch the 10.30 train.
    (اگر حالا حرکت کنيم به قطار ساعت 10:30 مي‌رسيم)
  • If I see him, I'll tell him the news. (.اگر او را ببينم خبرها را به او خواهم گفت)
  • You'll get wet if you don't take an umbrella. (.اگر چتر نبري خيس خواهي شد)

 

علاوه بر will مي‌توان از should ،must ،can ،might ،may و غيره نيز استفاده کرد که دراين صورت معني آن کمي فرق خواهد کرد:

  • If you pull the cat's tail, it may scratch you.
    (اگر دم گربه را بکشي ممکن است تو را چنگ بزند )
  • You should eat less rice if you want to lose weight.
    (اگر مي‌خواهي وزن کم کني بايد کمتر برنج بخوري)

 

 

جملات شرطي نوع دوم

از جملات شرطي نوع دوم براي بيان يک شرط يا موقعيت غير واقعي يا غير ممکن و نتيجه محتمل آن در زمان حال يا آينده بکار مي‌رود. در واقع در اين نوع جملات حال يا آينده‌اي متفاوت را تصور مي‌کنيم.

if

گذشته ساده

would ('d)
would not (wouldn't)

مصدر بدون to

if

I had more money, I

would ('d)

buy a new car.

if

you lived in England, you

would ('d)

soon learn English.

چند مثال ديگر:

  • If he needed any money, I'd lend it to him. (But he doesn't need it)
    (اگر به پول احتياج داشت به او قرض مي‌دادم)
  • If I had more time, I'd help you. (اگر وقت بيشتري داشتم به شما کمک مي‌کردم)
  • If I were* a rich man, I'd buy an expensive car.
    (اگر ثروتمند بودم يک ماشين گرانقيمت مي‌خريدم)
  • I wouldn't accept the job (even) if they offered it to me.
    (اگر آن کار را به من پيشنهاد مي‌کردند هم قبول نمي‌کردم)

 

* در اين نوع جملات، اغلب بجاي was از were استفاده مي‌شود:

  • If I were living in Tehran, we could meet more often.

 

 

جملات شرطي نوع سوم

از اين نوع جملات شرطي براي تصور گذشته‌اي غير ممکن استفاده مي‌شود. در واقع در اين نوع جملات، گوينده آرزوي يک گذشته متفاوت را دارد. (ولي به هر حال گذشته‌ها گذشته!)

if + گذشته کامل + would have + قسمت سوم فعل (p.p.) + ....

  • If I'd seen you, I would have said hello.
    (اگر تو را ديده بودم، سلام مي‌دادم)
  • If he had driven more carefully, he wouldn't have been injured.
    (اگر با دقت بيشتري رانندگي کرده بود، مجروح نمي‌شد)
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have gone to visit you.
    (اگر مي‌دانستم شما در بيمارستان بستري بوديد مي‌آمدم و شما را ملاقات مي‌کردم)
  • I would have gone to see him if I had known that he was ill.
    (اگر مي‌دانستم بيمار بود مي‌رفتم و به او سر مي‌زدم)

 

1- در اين نوع جملات مي‌توان بجاي would از could يا  might هم استفاده کرد:

  • If the weather hadn't been so bad, we could/might have gone out.

2- از would فقط مي‌توان در عبارت اصلي استفاده کرد و در عبارت شرطي نبايد آن را به کار برد:

  • If I had seen you, I would have said hello. (not : 'If I would have seen you')

 

 

 

 



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 44
[ جمعه 08 شهريور 1392 ] [ جمعه 08 شهريور 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 


THE FUTURE TENS

 

تعريف و موارد استعمال
براي بيان كاري كه در آينده انجام خواهد شد و خمچنين براي قول و تصميم بكار مي رودمانند كتاب را خواهم آورد
فرمول

فاعل + Will - Shall + To مصدر بدون

 

شما بيدار خواهيد شد

آسمان خواهد باريذ

من خواهم پرسيد

مثال

You will get up

It will rain

I shall ask

مثبت

Will you get up?

Will it rain?

Shall I ask?

روش سؤالي

You won't get up

It won't rain

I shan't ask

روش منفي

Won't you get up?

Won't it rain?

Shan't I ask?

روش منفي سؤالي

 

 

نكته 1 مي نويسيم Won't را بصورت  Will not و Shan't را بصورت Shall notنكته2
به معني قصد داشتن استفاده نمود Be goingمي توان از  Will يا Shall در جملات زمان آيندهبجاي 
They will visit us=They are going to visit us

زمان آينده استمراري

The Future Continuous Tense


تعريف و موارد استعمال
براي بيان كاري كه در آينده در زمان معيني در حال انجام خواهد بود مانند آنها در حال ورزش خواهند بود
فرمول

فاعل + Sall-Will + Be + To مصدر بدون + ing

 

آنخا در حال ايستادن خواهند بود

او در حال باز كردن خواهد بود

من در حال خواب خواهم بود

مثال

They will be standing

He will be opening

I shall be sleeping

مثبت

Will they be standing?

Will he be opening?

Shall I be sleeeping?

روش سؤالي

They won't be standing

He won't be opening

I shan't be sleeping

روش منفي

Won't they be standing?

Won't he be opening?

Shan't I be sleeping?

روش منفي سؤالي

نكته
به معني تا و تا وقتي كه در جملات آينده استمراري بكار مي رود  Until & Tillجمله به صورت حال ساده خواهد بود Till جمله بكار ببريم كه هميشه بعد از  Till قيد زمان و بعد از  Until بهتر است بعد از من تا ساعت 10 مشغول تماشاي تلويزيون خواهم بود
I shall be watching T.V until 10 O'clockمن تا شما بياييد در خانه در حال استراحت خواهم بود
I shall be resting at home till you come

زمان آينده كامل

The future Perfect Tense


تعريف و موارد استعمال
براي بيان عملي كه در آينده قبل از زمان تعين شده به پايان برسد
مانند قبل از ساعت 8 به خانه باز مي گردم
فرمول

فاعل + Shall-Will + Have + قسمت سوم فعل

 

ما نگهداري كرده ايم

او فكر كرده است

من سعي كرده ام

مثال

We will have kept

She will have thought

I will have tried

مثبت

Will we have kept?

Will she have thought?

Will you have tried?

روش سؤالي

We won't have kept

She won't have thought

I won't have tried

روش منفي

Won't we have kept?

Won't she have thought?

Won't you have tried?

روش منفي سؤالي

مثال ديگر
من فبل از ساعت 8 به خانه باز حواهم گشت
I shall have returned before 9 O'clockنكته
به معني تا و تا وقتي كه در جملات آينده كامل به كار مي روند By the time& Byجمله مي آيد كه حتما آن جمله به صورت حال ساده خواهد بود By the time قيد زمان و بعد از  By بعد از مثال
تا ساعت 7 او كارش را تمام مي كند
He will have finished his work by 7 O'clockتا وقتي كه شما بياييد او كارش را تمام مي كند
He will have finished his work by the time you come

زمان آينده كامل استمراري

The Future Prefect Continuous Tense

تعريف و موارد استعمال
براي بيان كاري كه در آينده قبل از زمان معيني شروع شده و بعد از آن رمان نيز ادامه خواهد داشت اين زمان در زبان فارسي وجود ندارد
مانند
درست اول مهر ماه مدت 17 سال خواهد بود كه او تحصيل مي كند
فرمول

فاعل + Shall-Will + Have been + To مصدر بدون  + ing

 

آنها در حال ازدواج كردن خواهند بود

او در حال فروختن خواهد بود

من در حال گفتن خواهم بود

مثال

They will have been marrying

He will have been selling

I shall have been telling

مثبت

Will they have been marrying?

Will he have been selling?

Shall I have been telling?

روش سؤالي

Thet won't have been marrying

He won't have been selling

I shan't have been telling

روش منفي 

Won't they have been marrying?

Won't he have been selling?

Shan't I have been telling?

روش منفي سؤالي

 

زمان آينده در گذشته
Future In The Past Tense



تعريف و موارد استعمال
هر گاه بخواهيم عملي را بيان كنيم كه كه زمان آن در گذشته به صورت آينده بوده از اين زمان استفاده مي كنيم بايد توجه داشت كه زمانهاي آينده در گذشته در زبان فارسي وجود ندارد مانند
من و دوستم ماه پيش تصميم گرفته بوديم كه به مسافرت برويم
فرمول

فاعل + Should-Would + To مصدر بدون 

 

ما مي فرستاديم

آن گربه مي پريد

من مينوشيدم

مثال

We would send

It would jump

I should drink

مثبت

Would we send?

Would it jump?

Should I drink?

روش سؤالي

We wouldn't send

It wouldn't jump

I shouldn't drink

روش منفي

Wouldn't we send?

Wouldn't it jump?

Shouldn't I drink?

روش منقي سؤالي

 

زمان آينده در گذشته استمراري

Future In The Past Continuous Tense

 

 

 


تعريف و موارد استعمال
كاربرد اين زمان همانند زمان آينده در گذشته ساده مي باشد و تنها فرقي كه دارد آن است كه عمل در اينجا بصورت استمرار ادامه داشته است
مانند
او گفت كه يك ماه ديگر در تهران خواهد ماند
فرمول

فاعل + Should-Would + Be + To مصدر بدون  + ing 

 

آنها در حال نشستن مي بودند

او مشغول جواب دادن مي بود

شما در حال آوردن مي بوديد

مثال

They would be sitting

She would be answering

You would be bringing

مثبت

Would they  be sitting?

Would she be answering?

Would  you be bringing?

روش سؤالي

 They wouldn't be sitting

She wouldn't be answering

You wouldn't be bringing

روش منفي

Wouldn't they be sitting?

Wouldn't she be answering?

Wouldn't you be bringing?

روش منقي سؤالي

 

زمان آينده در گذشته كامل

Future in the the Past Perfect Tense


تعريف و موارد استعمال
كاربرد اين زمان دو گونه است
گذشته كامل باشد عبارت اصلي را به صورت آينده در گذشته كامل بكار مي بريم IF در جملاتشرطي اگر عبارت شرطي مانند
اگر كتاب را مي آورديد آنرا مي خواندم
در جملات نقل قول اگر زمان در جمله نقل قول مستقيم بصورت آينده كامل باشد در نقل قول غير مستقيم به آينده در گذشته كامل تبديل مي شود
مانند
او گفت من يافته ام
She said I will have foundاو گفت كه او يافته بود
She said that she would have foundفرمول

فاعل + Should-Would + Have + قسمت سوم فعل

 

ما انتخاب كرده بوديم

او پيدا كرده بود

من نگاه كرده بودم

مثال

We would have chosen

He would have found

I sould have looked

مثبت

Would we have chosen?

Would he have found?

Sould I have looked?

روش سؤالي

We wouldn't have chosen

He wouldn't have found

I shouldn't have looked

روش منفي

Wouldn't we have chosen?

Wouldn't he have found?

Shouldn't I have looked?

روش منقي سؤالي

 

زمان آينده در گذشته كامل استمراري

Future in the Past Perfect Continuous Tense


تعريف و موارد استعمال
كاربرد اين زمان همانند آينده در گذشته كامل مي باشد با اين تفاوت كه زمان در اينجا به صورت استمرار خواهد بود همچنين در جملات نقل قول اگر زمان در جمله نقل قول مستقيم آينده كامل استمراري باشد به آينده در گذشته كامل استمراري تبديل مي شود
آنها گفتند ما در حال ازدواج كردن هستيم
Thed said "We will have been marrying"آنها گفتند كه آنها در حال ازدواج كردن هستند
They said that would have been marryingفرمول

فاعل + Should-Would + Have Been + To مصدر بدون  + ing

 

آنها در حال كمك كردن بودند

شما در حال ياد گرفتن بوديد

آن باد در حال وزيدن بود

مثال

They would have been helping

You would have been learning

It would have been blowing

مثبت

 would they have been helping?

Would you have been learning?

Would it have been blowing?

روش سؤالي

They wouldn't have been helping?

You wouldn't have been learning

It wouldn't have been blowing

روش منفي

Wouldn't they have been helping?

Wouldn't you have been learning?

Wouldn't it  have been blowing?

روش منقي سؤالي

 

 



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 45
[ جمعه 08 شهريور 1392 ] [ جمعه 08 شهريور 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

 

روش ساختن ماضی نقلی(حال کامل)

Have وhas +اسم مفعول.

وقتی که ماضی نقلی(حال کامل)به کار می بریم رابطه ای با حال بوجود می آید.به مثالهای زیر توجه کنید:

I’ve lost my key. (=I don’t have it now)

Jim has gone to Canada. (=he is in Canada or on his way to there now.)

اغلب زمانی که از ماضی نقلی(حال کامل)استفاده میکنیم میخواهیم اطلاعات جدید بدهیم یا در مورد رویدادی خبر بدهیم:

I’ve lost my key. Can you help me to look for it?

Did you hear about Peggy? She has gone to Canada.

ماضی نقلی(حال کامل) را با just هم به کار میبریم:

Would you like something to eat? “No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch.”

ماضی نقلی(حال کامل) را با already زمانی به کار میبریم که چیزی زودتر از زمانی که باید به وقوع می پیوست افتاده است:

Don’t forget to mail the letter. “I’ve already mailed it.”

 

مکالمه زیر را بخوانید:

Dave: Have you traveled a lot?

Jane: yes, I’ve been to 47 different countries.

Dave: Really? Have you ever been to China?

Jane: Yes. I’ve visited China twice.

Dave: What about India?

Jane: No. I’ve never been to India.

وقتی که میخواهیم در باره یک دوره از زمان که تا حال ادامه دارد حرف بزنیم از ماضی نقلی استفاده میکنیم.جین و دیوید با هم در مورد کشورهایی که جین تا با حال دیده است حرف میزنند.

مثالهای دیگری در این مورد:

Have you ever read Hamlet? “No, I haven’t read any of Shakespeare’s.



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 51
[ پنجشنبه 07 شهريور 1392 ] [ پنجشنبه 07 شهريور 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 


Is it raining?

No, it isn’t, but the ground is wet

It has been raining.

This is the Present perfect continues.

I/we/they/you have (=I’ve, etc.) been doing.

He/she/it has (=he’s, etc.) been doing.

زمانی از ماضی نقلی استفاده میکنیم که رویدادی در گذشته سروع شود و اخیرا به پایان رسیده باشد.مثال:

You’re out of breath. Have you been running?

Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing?

I’ve been talking to Tom about your problem, and he thinks…

...



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 37
[ پنجشنبه 07 شهريور 1392 ] [ پنجشنبه 07 شهريور 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

TIME

CAUSE + EFFECT

OPPOSITION

CONDITION

after

because

although

if

before

since

though

unless

when

now that

even though

only if

while

as

whereas

whether or not

since

in order that

while

even if

until

so

 

in case (that)

 

Subordinating conjunctions, (subordinators) are most important in creating subordinating clauses. These adverbs that act like conjunctions are placed at the front of the clause. The adverbial clause can come either before or after the main clause. Subordinators are usually a single word, but there are also a number of multi-word subordinators that function like a single subordinating conjunction. They can be classified according to their use in regard to time, cause and effect, opposition, or condition. Remember, put a comma at the end of the adverbial phrase when it precedes the main clause



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 55
[ سه شنبه 05 شهريور 1392 ] [ سه شنبه 05 شهريور 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Present continues (I am doing)

 

We use the present continues when we talk about something that is happening at the time of speaking, around the time of speaking, but not necessarily exactly at the time of speaking, a period around the present such as: today, this week, and we use the present continues when we talk about changingsituations. Now read these examples and if you would like, you can give us your own examples:

 

1)      Please don’t make so much noise. I am studying.

2)      “Where’s Peggy?”  She’s taking a bath.

3)      Maria is studying English at a language school.

4)      Is your English getting better?

5)      The population of the world is rising very fast.

 

 

 

 

Simple present (I do)

 

We use the simple present to talk about things in general. We are not thinking only about the present. We use to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly, or that something is true in general. It is not important whether the action is happening at the time of speaking. We use do/does to make questions and negative sentences. We use the simple present when we say how often we do things.

Note that we say “where do you come from?” (= where are you from?)

Now read these examples and if you would like, you can give us your own examples:

 

1)      The earth goes around the sun.

2)      Nurses take care of patients in hospitals.

3)      Excuse me, do you speak English?

4)      “Would you like a cigarette?” “No, thanks. I don’t smoke.”

5)      What does this word mean? (Not what means this word?)

6)      I get up at 6:30 every morning.

7)      How often do you go to go to the dentists?

8)      Where do you come from? (Not where are you coming from?)

9)      He comes from Japan. (Not he is coming from Japan.)

 

 

Present tenses (I am doing/ I do) with a future meaning

 

Whenyou are talking about what you have already arranged to do, use the present continuous (I am doing). Do not use the simple present (I do). It is also possible to use going to (do).Do not use will to talk about what you have already arranged to do.

 

1)      What are you doing tomorrow evening? (Not what do you do?)

2)      I am going to the theater.

3)      Are you playing tennis tomorrow?

4)      What are you going to do tomorrow evening?

5)      Alex is getting married next month.( not Alex will get married.)

 

We use the simple present when we are talking about timetables, schedules, etc. (for example, public transportation, movies):

 

1)      What time does the move begin?

2)      The football match starts at 2:00.

3)      Tomorrow is Wednesday.

 

 

 

Going to (I am going to do)

 

We use going to (do) when we say what we have already decided to do, or what was intended to do in the future. We prefer to use the present continues ( I am doing) when we say what someone has arranged to do- for example , arranged to meet someone, arranged to travel somewhere. We use was/were going to say what someone intended to do in the past (but didn’t do).

Going to has another meaning. We use going to when we say what we think will happen. Usually there is something in the present situation (the man walking toward the hole) that makes the speaker sure about what will happen.

 

1)      There is a movie on TV tonight. Are you going to watch it?

2)      What time are you meeting Kim?

3)      We were going to take the train but, then we decided to go by car.

4)      Look at those black clouds! It is going to rain.







درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 40
[ دوشنبه 04 شهريور 1392 ] [ دوشنبه 04 شهريور 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

May (have) and might (have)

 

 

Study this example situation:

 

You are looking for Jack. Nobody knows for sure where he is, but

you get some suggestions:

He may bein his office. (= perhaps he is in his office)

He might be having lunch. (= perhaps he is having lunch)

Ask Ann.She might know.

 

We use may or might to say that something is possible. You can say:

 

He may be in his office. or He might be in his office.

 

 

The negative is may not and might not:

 

• Jack might not be in his office. (= perhaps he isn’t in his office)

• I’m not sure whether I can lend you any money. I may not have enough.

(= perhaps I don’t have enough)

 

 

To say what was possible in the past, we use may have (done) and might have (done):

 

A: I wonder why Ann didn’t answer the doorbell.

B: Well, I suppose she may have been asleep. (= perhaps she was asleep)

 

A: Why didn’t he say hello when he passed us on the street?

B: He might have been daydreaming. (= perhaps he was daydreaming)

 

A: I can’t find my hag anywhere.

B: You might have left it in the store. (= perhaps you left it)

 

A: I wonder why Jill didn’t come to the meeting.

B: She might not have known about it. (= perhaps she didn’t know)

 

You can use could instead of may or might. But with could the possibility is smaller:

 

• “Where’s Jack?” “I’m not sure. He could be in his office, I suppose, but he’s not usually there at this time.”



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 52
[ شنبه 02 شهريور 1392 ] [ شنبه 02 شهريور 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

You can use the subjunctive after these verbs:

 

Propose            recommend       insist     demand

 

• I suggest (that) you take a vacation.

 

• They insisted (that) we have dinner with them.

 

• I insisted (that) he have dinner with me.

 

• He demanded (that) she apologize to him.

 

You can use the subjunctive for the present, past, or future:

 

I insist you come with us.

They insist I go with them.

 

Other structures are possible after insist and suggest:

 

• They insisted on my having dinner with them.

 

• She suggested that he buy some new clothes. (not suggested him to buy)

 

• What do you suggest I do? (not suggest me to do)

 

Should is sometimes used instead of the subjunctive.

 

• She suggested that he should buy some new clothes.

• The doctor recommended that I should rest for a few days.



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 51
[ شنبه 02 شهريور 1392 ] [ شنبه 02 شهريور 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 


Study this example situation: 


Joe is always listening to music. If you speak to him normally, he can’t hear you. If you
 want him to hear you, you have to shout.

Joe can’t hear unless you shout.

 

This means: “Joe can hear only if you shout.” Unless means except if. We use unlessto make an exception to something we say..

 

Here are some more examples of unless:

Don’t tell Ann what I said unless she asks you. (= except if she asks you)


I’ll come tomorrow unless I have to work. (= except if I have to work)

I wouldn’t eat between meals unless I were extremely hungry. (= except if I were extremely hungry)

 

We often use unless in warnings:

 

We’ll be late unless we hurry. (= except if we hurry)

Unless you work harder, you’re not going to pass the exam. (= except

you work harder)

 

Instead of unless it is possible to say if. . . not.

 

Don’t tell Ann what I said if she doesn’t ask you.

We’ll be late if we don’t hurry.

 

As long as      provided (that)         providing (that)

 

these expressions mean but only if:

 

You can use my car as long as (or so long as) you drive carefully. (= but only if you drive carefully)

 

Traveling by car is convenient provided (that) you have somewhere to park. (= but only if you have somewhere to park)

 

Providing (that) she studies hard, she should pass the exam. (= but only if she studies hard)

 

When you are talking about the future, do not use will with unless, as long as, provided or providing. Use a present tense:

 

We’ll be late unless we hurry. (not unless we will hurry)

 

Providing she studies hard. . . (not providing she will study)

 



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 43
[ شنبه 02 شهريور 1392 ] [ شنبه 02 شهريور 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

1. The police think the telephone call may hold a -------- to the identity of the killer.

a. fiction

b. clue

c. level

d. step

 

                                                                                  

2.  A: “Are you worried?”  B: “Only --------.”

a. slightly

b. actually

c. gradually

d. simply

 

                                                                    

3. Modern farming methods can have a negative -------- on the environment.

a. comfort

b. doubt

c. effect  

d. fame

 

4. We all have to learn to -------- stress.

a. obtain

c. attend

c. lessen

d. vary

 

5. Some students failed to -------- the meaning of unfamiliar words.

a. pose

b. hold

c. poke 

d. grasp

 

6. He decided to get married. First he had -------- with her parents.

a. defined

b. consulted

c. confused

d. recognized

 

7. The moment I saw her, I -------- something was wrong.

a. forced

b. realized

c. bordered

d. directed

 

8. He couldn’t get his high hopes. In fact, they were not --------.

a. predictable

b. realizable

c. accurate

d. contextual

 

9. Alice has a strong -------- to her father.

a. reference

b. trace

c. likeness

d. assumption

 

10. I had some pain in my back. The doctor -------- me to a specialist.

a. demanded

b. saved

c. checked

d. referred

 

11. The teacher is fair. He treats all the students --------.

a. variously

b. supposedly

c. strangely

d. alike

 

12. He was coughing a lot. The doctor told him to -------- smoking.

a. give up

b. find out

c. cross out

d. up root

 

13. I could not watch TV last night because it was not working --------.

a. separately

b. properly

c. constantly

d. gradually

 

14. We finally reached a -------- about what to do the other week.

a. confusion

b. realization

c. decision

d. definition

 

15. The word “love” is used in different -------- by different people.

a. errors

b. mistakes

c. positions

d. senses

 

16.  A: "Are you ready?"   B:  “No, not --------.”     

a. all right

b. special

c. as soon

d. yet

 

17. You feel like giving up, but you -------- reading.

a. want continue

b. want to continue to

c. want to continue

d. want continue to

 

18. Our car is old. We are considering -------- a new one.

a. to buy

b. buying

c. to be bought

d. being bought

 

19. He invited me to a party. I told him I could not promise -------- on time.

a. to be

b. being

c. to being

d. having been

 

20. The word "--------" is not an intensifier?

a. extremely

b. quite

c. terribly

d. hardly

 

21. I'd like an ice-cream.  "Are you having --------, too?"     

a. ones

b. one

c. two

d. many

 

22. This car -------- that one; this one is much better.

a. is the same as

b. is alike

c. is different from

d. is similar to

 

23. The children -------- had an accident lost their lives.

a. whom

b. who

c. whom they

d. where they

 

24. It takes at least three hours -------- the homework.

a. do

b. to do

c. doing

d. to doing

 

25. He works a lot, -------- he achieves little.

a. in other words

b. on the other hand

c. moreover

d. on the one hand

 

26. Water is necessary for life. -------- nothing can live without water.

a. In other words

b. However

c. Nonetheless

d. Nevertheless

 

27. When you are in doubt about spelling of a word, you’d better -------- a dictionary.

a. to refer to

b. referring to

c. to referring

d. refer to

 

28. He is very strong and confident. In fact, he is a man --------.

a. decisive

b. deciding

c. of decision

d. decidedly

 

29. Which is not an example of a compound word?

a. policeman

b. guardhouse

c. handgun

d. dictionary

 

30. Which pair of words is not an example of homophone?

a. write / right

b. fair / fare

c. son / sun

d. leave / live



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 46
[ پنجشنبه 31 مرداد 1392 ] [ پنجشنبه 31 مرداد 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

طرز ساختن:

فعل با ing

+been

+had

+فاعل

 

موارد استعمال:

هر گاه دو کار در زمان گذشته انجام گرفته و یکی از کارها مقدم بر دیگری باشد و در عین حال مدتی نیز ادامه داشته باشد آن را به صورت ماضی بعید استمراری بیان می کند:

He had been living in Tehran for 10 years before he died.

 

 

 

زمان گذشته کامل (ماضی بعید)Past Perfect Tense

طرز ساختن:

اسم مفعول (قسمت سوم فعل)

+had

+فاعل

 

موارد استعمال:

1- بیان کاری که در گذشته قبل از گذشته دیگر انجام گرفته است:

When we got to the station, the train had left.

 

2- بیان کاری که قبل از زمانی در گذشته انجام گرفته است:

They had finished the work before noon.

 

تبصره_ گاهی فعل زمان گذشته (مورد اول) و یا قید زمان گذشته(مورد دوم) از جمله حذف می شود ولی شنونده از مضمون سخن بدان پی می برد:

I had seen him (before I left the school).

 

3- بعد از حرف ربط قیدی مانندunless , if و سایر ادوات شرط برای بیان فرض گذشته به کار می رود:

If he had come earlier, he would have seen the doctor.

 

 

 

 

زمان گذشته استمراری (ماضی استمراری)

Past Continuous Tense

طرز ساختن:

فعل با ing +

was

+ فاعل

were

 

موارد استعمال:

1- کاری که در گذشته ادامه داشته و همزمان با آن کار دیگری صورت گیرد:

We were reading newspaper when the telephone rang.

 

2- کاری که در گذشته معین مدتی ادامه داشته است:

He was swimming at 3 o'clock yesterday.

 

3- کارهایی که همزمان با هم در گذشته مدتی ادامه داشته است:

When we were playing chess, my father was watching television.

 

4- کارهایی که در طول زمان معین در گذشته ادامه داشته است:

All last month we were visiting round Europe.

 

 

 

 

زمان گذشته ساده یا ماضی مطلقSimple Past tense

طرز ساختن:

زمان گذشته فعل (قسمت دوم)

+فاعل

 

موارد استعمال:

1- کارهایی که در گدشته معینی انجام گرفته و در این مورد قیدهایی نظیرago, last night, yesterday و نظایر آنها با جمله همراه است:

I finished my work two hours ago.

 

2- کارهایی که در گذشته به صورت عادت و تکرار انجام گرفته و اغلب با یکی از قیدهای تکرار همراه است:

When I was in London, I often went to the opera.

 

تبصره_ ممکن است به جای قید و زمان گذشته فعل از ترکیب (مصدر+used to ) استفاده کرد.این عمل غالباً برای کارهایی است که در گذشته عادت بوده ولی اکنون متروک است:

I used to play football when I was 16 years old.

 

3- بعد از حرف ربطunless , if و سایر ادوات شرط برای بیان شرط حال(فرض حال)،زمان گذشته به کار می رود:

If I saw him, I should tell him the matter.



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 53
[ پنجشنبه 31 مرداد 1392 ] [ پنجشنبه 31 مرداد 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 ساختار

(last week)

(yesterday)

worked

I, we, you, he, she, …

played

heard

 

منفی

work…

play…

hear…

didn’t

did not

I, we, you, he, she, …

پرسشی

work…?

play…?

hear…?

I, we, you, he, she, …

Did

 کاربرد

گذشته ساده در موارد زیر کاربرد دارد:

۱- برای بیان کاری که در گذشته و زمان مشخصی به پایان رسیده است:

  • We met last week.
  • He left yesterday.

 ۲- برای بیان کارهایی که پشت سرهم در یک ماجرا یا داستان می‌آیند:

  • I walked into my room and sat down. Suddenly I heard a noise coming from outside. I got up and went towards the window…

 ۳- برای بیان عادت یا شرایطی در گذشته:

  • When he was a child, they lived in a cottage in the jungle.
  • Every day he walked in the jungle to

·         نکاتی در مورد هجی (verb + ed)

·        

·         نکاتی در مورد هجی (verb + ed)

·         1- هنگامیکه فعلی به e ختم می‌شود، فقط d اضافه می‌کنیم:

·         loved, hated, used

·         2- افعال یک هجایی (یک بخشی) که به ترتیب شامل یک حرف صدادار و یک حرف بی‌صدا می‌باشند، حرف بی‌صدای آخر تکرار می‌شود:

·         stopped, planned, robbed

·         ولی اگر دو حرف صدادار وجود داشته باشد، حرف بی‌صدای آخر تکرار نمی‌شود:

·         looked, cooked, seated

·         اگر حرف بی‌صدای آخر y یا w باشد نیز تکرار نمی‌شود:

·         played, rowed, showed



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 68
[ یکشنبه 13 مرداد 1392 ] [ یکشنبه 13 مرداد 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 ساختار

جملات پرسشی:

eating?

playing?

talking?

I,  he, she, it

was

wasn’t

you, we, they

were

weren’t

جملات مثبت و منفی:

walking

playing

fishing

was

wasn’t

I,  he, she, it

were

weren’t

you, we, they

 کاربرد

از زمان گذشته استمراری بیشتر برای بیان کارهایی استفاده می‌شود که در گذشته اتفاق افتاده و مدتی ادامه داشته‌اند ولی حدود زمانی آنها به طور دقیق مشخص یا مهم نیست.

در اغلب موارد گذشته استمراری همراه با گذشته ساده بکار می‌رود. در چنین حالتی، گذشته استمراری بر کارها و فعالیتهای طولانی‌تر (در پس‌زمینه) دلالت می‌کند، در حالی که گذشته ساده بر کارها و فعالیتهایی دلالت می‌کند که در میانه کارهای طولانی‌تر واقع شده‌اند.


بطور کلی «گذشته استمراری» در موارد زیر بکار می‌رود:

۱- برای بیان کاری که قبل از زمان خاصی در گذشته آغاز شده و احتمالاً پس از آن نیز ادامه داشته است:

  • ‘What were you doing at 6.00?’  ‘I was having breakfast.’
    (.ساعت
    ۶ چکار می‌کردید؟ داشتم صبحانه می‌خوردم)

 ۲- برای بیان کار یا فعالیتی در گذشته که به وسیله چیزی قطع شده باشد:

  • The phone rang when I was watching TV.
    (.وقتی داشتم تلویزیون تماشا می‌کردم، تلفن زنگ زد)
  • While I was driving home, my car broke down.
    (.هنگامیکه داشتم به خانه بر می‌گشتم، ماشینم خراب شد)

 ۳- برای بیان کار یا فعالیتی به پایان نرسیده در زمان گذشته (در مقایسه با گذشته ساده که کارهای کامل شده را بیان می‌کند):

  • I was reading a book during the flight. (I didn’t finish it)
  • but: I read a book during the flight. (I finished it


درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 34
[ یکشنبه 13 مرداد 1392 ] [ یکشنبه 13 مرداد 1392 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 


زمانهای گذشته و آینده

     1-I opened one door as a soon as I …the bell.

1)heard                         2) am heard                  3) have heard                4) was hearing

     2-we always … to our aunt’s house on Sundays when we lived there.

1) went                         2) will go                       3) were going                4) have gone

  3-“His sudden absence surprised every one.”    “Yes , I was working in the kitchen when he…..”

1) had left         2) has left                     3) would leave               4) left

  4-She hadn’t left the city until we …her to do so.

1) will ask         2) were asking 3) has asked                  4) asked

  5-Every day last week, father …me to school in his car.

1) take              2) took              3) had taken                  4) has taken

  6- Did you talk to Mr. Tehrani yesterday?

      Yes, but I … to give him your message.

1) forgot                       2) have forgotten                       3) would forget              4)was forgotten

n                   7-“When did the rain start?”   “It started as soon as you……”

1)have telephoned                                 2) had telephoned

3) telephoned                                        4) would be telephoned

n                   8- My sister … a new car in 1364.

1) bought                      2) had bought    3) has bought    4) would have bought

n                   9- I saw him the very moment he….

1) entered         2) is entering     3) enters                       4) has entered

n                   10- As it …late I tired to work faster.

1) were                         2) has got                      3) was getting   4)gets

n                   11- The old lady fell as she …the street.

1) is crossing     2) is crossed      3) was crossed 4) was crossing

n                   12- Parviz …television when his friend arrived.

1) has watched              2) was watching            3) watched                    4) will be watching

n                   13- When did you finish your homework? I did it while you …to the radio.

1) have listened                                                 2) listened

3) have been listening                            4) were listening

n                   14- As he … to jump over the rope, he fell and hurt himself.

1) has run                     2) would run      3) would be running       4) was running

n                   15- My friend usually plays tennis, but when I last saw her she ……chess.

1) is playing                   2) has played     3) played                       4) was playing

n                   16- When I saw the gardener, he … down  a tree.

1) had been cutting                                2) will be cutting

3) was cutting                                       4) is cutting

n                   17- The students said that he … that subjects for more than twenty years.

1) had been teaching                              2) has been teaching

3)  has taught                                        4) teaches

n                   18- When we were having dinner, I suddenly remembered that I …the door.

1) didn’t lock                 2) hadn’t locked                        3) would not lock           4) haven’t locked

n                   19-By 1950 , he … in Rome for twenty years.

1)had been living           2) has lived                   3) was living      4) lived

 

n                   20- When I telephoned , he ..there for two weeks.

1) has been                   2) had been                   3) is                              4) was

n                   21- The flowers gradually appeared after….

1) I bought my suitcase                          2) the storm started

3) the snow had melted                          4) the children uprooted them

n                   22- He told me that he …there for five years.

1)had been working                               2) has worked

3) will have been working                      4) hasn’t been working

n                   23- Arash, was sitting in a corner with a book. I told him that he …in very bad light.

1) reads                        2) is reading                  3) read              4) was reading

n                   24- When we say “They intended to move into a new house” we mean that ….

1)                they must move into a new house

2)                they were going to move into a new area]

3)                they wanted to remove the house to the new area

4)                they planned to live in the same house

n                   25- We … about everything in our last meeting .

1) discuss                      2) are discussing                        3) discussing                 4) discussed

n                   26- “Ali was sorry he missed the picnic”    “Yes, he….. .”

1) regretted that he couldn’t go               2) regrets that he can’t go

3) would regret that be couldn’t go                     4) regretted that he can’t go

n                   27- The farmers decided to plan some seeds while it ……. .

1) has still rained           2) still rains                   3) was still raining          4) had still been raining

n                   28- When I …the exam papers, I found that a few student had cheated.

1) correct                                  2) would correct                        3) have corrected          4) corrected

n                   29- He ….a little trouble with his car last Friday.

1) has                           2) has already had                     3) had               4) have already had

n                   30- … as soon as the train had started?

1) Is she jumping out                              2) Did he jump out

3)                                                                     4)

n                   31- My cousin …for that company for three years when I joined it.

1) was working                                                 2) has been working

3) had worked                                       4) had been working

n                   32- He … as a writer even before he become a politician.

1) has been well known                         2) has well known

3) had been well known                         4) had well known

n                   33- I am sure I …him the day after tomorrow.

1) saw                          2) will see                     3) had seen                               4) have seen

n                   34- As soon as he comes, I ……..him to you.

1) am introducing           2) introduced     3) will introduce             4) can to introduce        

n                   35- If you don’t go , I … very angry.

1) had to be                   2) shall be                     3) need be                     4) has to be 

n                   36- This time next month we….our examination results.

1) were receiving          2) will have received      3) have received            4) had received

n                   37- By 6 o’clock tomorrow morning , he .. for about twelve hours.

1) will sleep                               2) will have been sleeping

3) will be sleeping                      4) will have slept

n                   38- I feel certain, in another 10 minutes, I ………...the test.

1) have finished             2) had finished   3) finished         4) will have finished

n                   39- This time tomorrow night we ………… a good scientific program T.V.

1) will be watching                                2) will have watched

3) would have watched              4) will watch

n                   40- By tomorrow night, our cousins………. in Tehran.

1) will be arriving           2) would be arriving       3) will have arrived   4) would have arrived

n                   41- Don’t call on him next week since he … on his new project then.

1) has been working      2) has worked               3) working                    4) will be working

n                   42- Before I move out of this country at the end of next month, I … here for twenty years.

1) have been living                                 2) shall live

3) will have been living               4) have lived

n                   43- I know I ….it the time it begins to rain.

1) will finish                                          2) will have finished

3) will have been finishing                      4) will be finishing

n                   44- “What ….at 8 o’clock tomorrow morning?” he’s asking us.

1) are you doing            2) have you done                       3) will you be doing    4) will you have done

n                   45- I hope I …it by time my mother comes back.

1) will finish      2) will have finished        3) will finishing     4) will have been finishing

n                   46- “When does Mehdi arrive tomorrow?”     “He is going …in the afternoon.”

1) arrive                        2) arrives                      3) arriving                     4) to arrive

n                   47- I don’t want to go home by bus I ….

1) have walked              2) was going to walk      3) could walk        4) am going to walk

n                   48- Take an umbrella it ….

1) has rained a lot                      2) rained a lot yesterday

3) is going to rain                       4) had rained before

n                   49- “ Your hair is dirty”    “Yes, I know . I …….”.

1) am going to wash                  2) have washed

3) was going to wash                 4) am washing

n                   50- In half an hour’s time he …here for one hour.

1) will have been waiting                        2) will have been waited

3) will be waiting                                   4) will wait



درباره : گرامر عمومي زبان , زمان در زبان انگليسي ,
بازدید : 51
[ یکشنبه 15 مرداد 1391 ] [ یکشنبه 15 مرداد 1391 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]
.: Weblog Themes By graphist :.

::

درباره وبلاگ

مشخصات نویسنده غلامعلی عباسی درباره : غلامعلی عباسی متولد 1340 دبیر بازنشسته زبان انگلیسی در شهرستان اردبیل هستم . این وبلاگ دفتر یادداشت بنده محسوب می کردد . هر مطلبی که به یادگیری بیشتر زبان انگلیسی کمک نماید و به نظر من مفید باشد در این وبلاگ جمع آوری نموده و با علاقه مندان زبان انگلیسی به اشتراک گذاشته ام . اطمینان کامل دارم که انتقادات و ایرادهای بیشماری متوجه این وبلاگ می تواند باشد ولی بنده به عنوان مدیر این وبلاگ در بهبود این کار انتظار راهنمایی و پیشنهاد از طریق دوستداران زبان و اهل فن را دارم . تا حد ممکن منابع اعلام میگردد . امیدوارم مورد قبول و پسند همكاران ارجمند و دانش آموزان و دانشجویان زبان انگلیسی واقع گردد .

موضوعات
زبان دبيرستان
آموزش زبان انگليسي
مقالات
مطالب خواندني
حافظه
روش مطالعه
شعر انگلیسی
سخنان بزرگان
اصطلاحات انگلیسی
انگلیسی برای سطح مبتدی
آمار سایت
بازديدهاي امروز : 161 نفر
بازديدهاي ديروز : 252 نفر
كل بازديدها : 301,668 نفر
بازدید این ماه : 768 نفر
بازدید ماه قبل : 3,458 نفر
کل نظرات : 3 عدد
كل مطالب : 2128 عدد
كل اعضا : 11 عدد
افراد آنلاین : 1 نفر