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      1)         Some people say that you cannot make a conscious effort to learn a foreign language.  They hate to study grammar and say you must simply allow the language to sink in gradually

 

Others argue that language learning is a conscious and systematic process.   It is necessary to study hard, practise, and constantly ask for explanations and rules.

 

            Which idea do you believe in?    

 

2)         Some people think that to learn a new language you must completely forget your native language.  Others say you cannot and should not.  To what extent do you find that comparing your native language with the foreign language helps you to learn a new language?


 



ادامه مطلب

درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 86
[ جمعه 08 خرداد 1394 ] [ جمعه 08 خرداد 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 Abstract 

 At first sight , it may seem rather odd to focus on what learners get wrong rather than on what they get right. However, there are good reasons for focusing on errors. Many teachers nowadays regard student errors as evidence that progress is being made. Errors often show us that a student is experimenting with language, trying out ideas, taking risks, attempting to communicate, and making progress. Analyzing what errors have been made clarifies exactly where the learner has reached and helps set the syllabus for future language work. In dealing with errors, teachers have looked for correction techniques that, rather than simply giving learners the answer on a plate, help them to make their own correction. This may raise their own awareness about the language they are using. So it is important for the teacher to understand, and to feel deeply, that errors are inevitable and a natural part of the learning process. It is important for the teacher to transmit this attitude to learners. The learner who understands that learning involves making mistakes, errors, is more likely to make progress. Therefore, the important titles explained in details in this article are:

-                      different kinds of errors, especially certain errors which are often very important to the communication

-                      Sources of errors

-                      different steps in analyzing learner errors before inviting correction

-                      different correction techniques

-                      over-correction

 

Key words: mistakes, errors, analyzing errors, correction techniques,

                   over-correction

چکیده

شاید در نگاه اول پرداختن به خطاهای یادگیرندگان بجای توجه به عملکردهای صحیح آنان عجیب به نظر آید اما دلایل قانع کننده ای برای تمرکز بر روی خطاهای یادگیرندگان وجود دارد:

امروزه برای بیشتر معلمین خطاهای دانش آموزان مدرکی است که میزان پیشرفت آنها را نشان میدهد. اغلب موارد خطاها نشان میدهند که تا چه میزان دانش آموز با زبان درگیر شده و در حال آزمون و خطاست و تا چه حد برای برقراری ارتباط تلاش کرده و پیشرفت نموده است. تجزیه خطاهایی که توسط یادگیرندگان انجام می شود دقیقاً مشخص می کند که آنها به چه مرحله ای رسیده اند و بعلاوه در تدوین برنامه درسی بعدی نیز بسیار کمک کننده است . زمانیکه دانش آموزان اشتباه می کنند بیشتر معلمین بجای اینکه پاسخ صحیح را مستقیماً به دانش آموز ارائه کنند به دنیال تکنیک های تصحیح هستند چون آگاهی یادگیرندگان را نسبت به زبانی که استفاده می کنند بالا می برد بنابراین بسیار مهم است که معلمین بدانند خطاها جزئی غیر قابل اجتناب و بخشی طبیعی از فرایند یادگیری هستند و باید این مهم را نیز به دانش آموزان منتقل کنند.     یادگیرنده ای که بداند خطا کردن جزئی از فرایند یادگیری است پیشرفت بیشتری خواهد داشت.

به همین جهت عناوین زیر به تفضیل در این مقاله شرح داده می شوند :

? انواع مختلف خطاها ، خصوصاً انواع خاصی که مربوط به فرایند ارتباط برقرار کردن هستند

?  منشا خطاها

? تجزیه خطاها قبل از تصحیح آنها

? تکنیکهای تصحیح خطاها

? تصحیح بیش از حد

کلمات کلیدی : اشتباهات ، خطاها ، تجزیه خطاها ، تکنیکهای تصحیح ، تصحیح بیش از حد

 

  

Introduction

Language is complex phenomenon, and language learning a correspondingly complex activity. Many factors contribute towards the success or failure of the individual language learner. One of the most important, however is probably the confidence the learner has in his ability to succeed in the task. Teachers frequently undermine this confidence by emphasizing the difficulties the student faces. Probably even more important, however, in undermining the learners’ confidence, is the teacher’s over-zealous correction of mistakes. Inevitably it will appear unnatural and few students will succeed. Most students learning a foreign language, except the very young, bring with them the idea that the new language will behave like their own mother tongue. Interference of this kind will mean that structural mistakes are inevitable. It is necessary that teachers transmit to students the idea that mistakes are an essential part of the learning process, and definitely not something to be feared (James, 1998; Lewis, 2007).

     All students make mistakes at various stages of their language learning. It is part of the natural process they are going through and occurs for a number of reasons. In the first place, the students’ own language may get in the way. This is most obviously the case with ‘false friends’ – those words which sound or look the same but mean something different. False friends are more common where the learner’s language shares a common heritage with English (i.e. Romance languages).

     Grammatical considerations matter too: Japanese students frequently have trouble with article usage, Germans have to get used to positioning the verb correctly, Arabic students have to deal with a completely different written system etc. (James, 1998).

     Interference from the students’ own language is not the only reason for making mistakes. There is a category which a number of people call ‘developmental’ errors. These are the result of conscious or subconscious processing which frequently overgeneralises a rule, as, for example, when a student, having learnt to say things like ‘I have to go’, then starts saying ‘I must to go , not realizing that the use of ‘to’ is not permitted with ‘must’.  

     Some mistakes are deep-seated and need constant attention (ask experienced teachers about the third-person singular of the present simple!). While these are examples of ‘errors’, others seem to be more like ‘slips’ made while students are simultaneously processing information and they are therefore easier to correct quickly.

     Whatever the reason for ‘getting it wrong’, it is vital for the teacher to realize that all students make mistakes as a natural and useful way of learning. By working out when and why things have gone wrong, they learn more about the language they are studying (Hokkanen, 2001; Schneider, 1998).



درباره : مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 63
[ جمعه 08 خرداد 1394 ] [ جمعه 08 خرداد 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

·         by Brenton Dickieson

·         A couple of weeks ago I tweeted that I was reading 10 books simultaneously. I started looking at my reading notes, and this seems to be a habit for me. I can sit down, read one book all the way through, and then move on. But looking at the different books I am reading right now teaches me something about different kinds of readings we do.

·         Bedside Reading

·         My bedside reading pile is unending. What kind of world is this where there are so many great books to read! Alas, I get to almost none of the books I set aside to read before I go to sleep, but it is a big part of my evening.

·         I’ve recently gone through a Tom Clancy spell—I’ve already repented here. Now at bedtime I’m reading J. Aleskandr Wootton’s The Eighth Square (2013), the second part of an indie fantasy trilogy. Wootton is also a guest blogger here on A Pilgrim in Narnia, and this trilogy is the ideal fantasy-lovers series.

·         I am also reading a literary superstar’s memoir, which is a little odd for me. It is That Summer in Paris by Canadian Morley Callaghan (1963). Morley Callaghan’s fiction is worth reading, but this book came to me by accident. I found it in a reject bin about the same time I watched the Woody Allen film Midnight in Paris (2011). I loved the film, but have a sneaking suspicion that Woody Allen stole the idea from Morley Callaghan. In vivid detail, Callaghan tells the story of his literary adolescence as he finds his way into friendships with Sinclair Lewis, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Ernest Hemmingway.

·         I am also reading, little by little, J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Silmarillion (1977). It is like the Bible for Tolkien geeks (to quote a friend). And I keep a book of poetry by the bedside, which I take in little sips.

·         Research Books

·         Part of what I do is research, and research means reading long, detailed books. In my world, those are usually books on philosophy, literature, theology, or history. The best thing to do with most of these books is to dig in and read whole chapters at a time. Sometimes I take 3-4 days and do nothing but read a single book. Other times I read a chapter a day.

·         In this cycle, I’m not reading anything really dense. I just finished The Cost of Discipleship (1937) by Dietrich Bonhoeffer (which could now move to “enrichment” category), and moved on to Paul Tillich, Against the Third Reich (1942-44). This is a series of radio broadcasts this German-American theologian broadcast into German during WWII. His goal was to provide thinking Germans with the motivation to resist the Nazis, which he argued had betrayed Germany and the world. Once I was a few chapters in, I moved this to my Happenstance pile (see below), and just finished it last night. I’ll pick up another Tillich book tomorrow, and then perhaps Karl Barth.

·         I am also reading J.R.R. Tolkien’s incomplete alliterative poem, The Fall of Arthur (c. 1934). The poem is only a small part of this book. The rest is made up of essays, commentary, and textual notes made by his son, Christopher Tolkien. I am in the nitty gritty of comparing manuscripts now, and have made quite a few notes.

·         Finally, I also took time to go through George MacDonald, Lilith (1895). Normally this would fit in my bedside reading, but it is an important work for understanding C.S. Lewis, so I did this as a sit down read. I will read it again this fall and make copious notes. It will be the same with Charles Williams’ “Chapel of the Thorn” (1912), which will be published soon. I read it once with a few notes, and looked at the manuscript at the Wade. Sometime later I will sit down, read it in more detail, and then do some writing on what I found.

·         Happenstance Books

·         Other than toilet reading, I don’t know if other folk have Happenstance Books. I try to have a book beside each of my reading places in the house, and one jammed between the seats of the car. For me, this has to be a specific kind of book. Madeleine L’Engle’s nonfiction works well for this. I finished Penguins and Golden Calves (2000) and have begun her Stone for a Pillow (2000). These are books I can pick up and read mid-paragraph or even midsentence without missing a beat. I am also reading C.S. Lewis’ George MacDonald anthology (1945) and the second volume of his Collected Letters(as part of reading Lewis chronologically).

·         Beside my study chair in my office, I also have Sir Thomas Malory, Le Morte D’Arthur (1485). Among my Happenstance Books are some older ones that I read a chapter at a time. I am only a quarter of the way through the first of two volumes, so that will take some time. My big struggle is not the language, but keeping track of all the characters.

·         Family Reading

·         Family reading is a precious thing to me. We listen to an audiobook in the car from time to time (see below), but I also read to my son every second night. We just finished The Fellowship of the Ring (1954) and took a break to read a story I had finished. Now we are reading Roger Lancelyn Green’s adaptation, King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table (1953). Hopefully we’ll begin The Two Towers (1954) soon, but we often get sidetracked by Shel Silverstein’s poetry or a cool book he brings home from school.

·         As-I-Go Audiobooks

·         I’ve recently blogged on my love for audiobooks, and I typically have a book in my ear when I am in between things. Before my recent trip to Chicago, I finished Jack Kerouac, On the Road (1957), read by David Carradine. Next, I will listen to Perelandra(1943) as a way of rereading this beautiful book by C.S. Lewis.

·         On top of what’s on my iPod, my family also listens to the occasional book in the car. We are just about to finish Arthur Ransome, Swallows & Amazons (1930). I’m not sure what will be next for us!

·         Enriching Books

·         I have trouble naming this category. These are the books that I am reading that are focussed on spiritual or personal renewal. I don’t call them “devotional” reading because all my reading is devotional reading—it has more to do with my attitude in reading than the kind of book, I think. But still, there are some books I read so I can be challenged to grow in ways I can’t predict until I’ve read the book. Many of these are thoughtful  Christian spirituality books, but some of them are memoirs, creative nonfiction pieces, collections of poetry, and books on writing.

·         Right now a group I am part of is reading David Platt’s Radical (2010), and I am slowly going through St. Athananasius, On The Incarnation (c. 319 CE). This was translated by Sr. Penelope during WWII and is a real treat.

·         As I write this, I’m thinking of what will come next in his category. I have a hankering for Anne Lamott, Frederick Buechner, or more Dietrich Bonhoeffer. We’ll see.

·         There are other kinds of reading too. Skimming, scanning, fireside reading, campfire reading, summer beach reading, copy editing…. The list is endless. But these are the kinds of reading I do most often.

·         What about you? What sort of reading do you do? Do you also have a Happenstance Pile?

 



درباره : مقالات انگليسي ,
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[ چهارشنبه 06 خرداد 1394 ] [ چهارشنبه 06 خرداد 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

1.

Different kinds of reading material should be exploited carefully for language enhancement: newspapers, magazines, advertisements,

pamphlets, invitations etc.

 

 

2.

It is important to read intensively as well as extensively and it is also important to know how to skip judiciously

 

3.

Reading for pleasure should involve slow reading to promote depth and awareness about underlying laws and patterns.

 

 

4.

To learn language meaningfully through reading it is important to ‘engage’ with a text. Opportunity for such engagement should

be made available for learners through worksheets and activities.

 

 

5.

Readers should be encouraged to use different reading strategies for different kinds of texts. For example, looking for information in a timetable, etc.

 

 

 



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People think I’m ridiculous when I tell them I have certain relationships with books, and that those relationships dictate how I read those books.

Why don’t you just finish one book before you pick up another?

That book was terrible, how could you finish that one and not this one? And how could you LIKE it?

And so on. I can’t finish a book until I’m in a relationship with it. If I’m not feeling a connection to the book, one of the characters/the setting/something about the plot, I’m going to put it into rotation (and eventually back on the shelf if it doesn’t step up). However, if I find one thing, one thing, about a book that bonds me to it – I won’t let it go. But this happens so rarely that it seems to those around me that I am constantly not committing to one book… and this would be the truth.

So, I’m left to wonder. Are our relationships with books similar to relationships with people? I look around and can’t help but think there might be something to this…

Surfacey Relationship People

These are the people who know a LOT of other people and are “great” friends with them all. Ask them something deep or quite personal about one of those dear friends and they will often not have the answer. These people don’t tend to have a lot of time for reading, they are too busy socializing (and by socializing I mean hanging out with Honey Boo Boo and Kim Kardashian too). Ask them who David Foster Wallace is and they probably won’t have the answer either… Sophie Kinsella and Dan Brown? Probably…. they’re reading one of their books over the summer. The entire summer.

Serial Monogamists

These are the people who jump from long-term romantic relationship to long-term romantic relationship. They also jump from one long book to the next. The book they are reading is usually a project, usually on their nightstands for some time, and usually something “important.” They don’t give up (they wouldn’t dream of it), and when they know it’s coming close to the ending, they’ve already researched and planned which book will be next on the nightstand. No empty nightstands (or beds) for these people.

Committed People

These are the people who are in committed long-term relationships and probably have a few kids. They’ve settled down, they’ve got their groove. They know which books they like and they stick with them, why change? And if something new is introduced to their palate, they’ll eventually (when they have time) try to juggle it in and then feel ecstatic that they have something new and fresh in their lives. Did you know about this?! They’ll exclaim to their friends who have more time on their hands than they do. Yes, those friends will answer, it came out eight months ago and the entire Internet/Night Show Circuit/Bestseller Lists was blowing up about it. (Rinse and repeat eight months later.)

Commitment Phobic People

These are the people who don’t tend to like everyone they meet. They date sporadically because most people don’t entice them, but they have a series of crushes to get them through day-to-day life. Then, randomly they’ll meet someone and be hooked. Same goes for books, these are the people who start books and stop them like other people use chewing gum. Sometimes they come back to try them again – see if they’re a better fit, and then move on again. Then one day they find something that hooks them and doesn’t let them go and they can’t-stop-reading. Once that book is done they look wildly around for another to make them feel as wonderful as the last, but we all know they’ll get back into the cycle of reading a few pages of one, then a few pages of another…

 

Because these statements are statistically tested, there is no reason to argue with them. They are black and white and as solid of assessments as can be in the book reading world. Of course, there are no other types of readers (or relationships) and every single person fits precisely into one of the above categories. However, if we were to imagine that these previous statements weren’t true, and/or that this piece is entirely sarcastic, what types of readers and relationships have I missed exploring? Write your own Type of Relationship and synopsis below

 



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The following questions concern your feelings about your language learning experience.

1)                   Many language learners feel very negative about their learning experiences.  They say they feel discouraged, frustrated, impatient, or confused by the difficulties of learning a language. 

Have you ever experienced any of these feelings?  Can you explain? 

2)         Others say they feel shy or embarrassed expressing themselves in the foreign language.   

Have you ever felt this way?    Can you explain?

            4)         If you have experienced some of these feelings, what did you do to overcome them?      

3)         When you are learning a language, are you usually:   

a.      highly motivated, and do everything possible to learn the language.

b.      quite motivated, and try to do what you can to learn the language, but it is not your priority.

c.      not very motivated, because you are too busy or tired to concentrate on it.  You are learning out of necessity.

d.      not very motivated, because you find learning languages boring. 

6)                   Do you give yourself encouragement, by saying things to yourself like: “I’m doing okay” or “I’m right, I know it.”

Do you have any other comments about your language learning experiences that you would like to tell me?



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By Kenneth Beare,

There are many ways to study English, but many students ask which is the most effective. Unfortunately, I don't think there is a single answer that is right for every student. However ... I can certainly give advice I some helpful guidelines as to how to study that should help.

Warming-up to Study English

Just as there are exercises to help you warm up before you play some basketball or other sport, there are exercises which can help you warm up to study English. Here are some simple exercises to help you warm up.

1.     Study English I: Activating Your Vocabulary

Activate your vocabulary by thinking or speaking briefly about the subject you are about to work on. For example, if you are going to study English on topics that focuses on vacations, take a moment to think about your last vacation, what you did, what you enjoyed, etc. This simple exercise will help your brain warm-up to vocabulary that you are likely to encounter as you study English about this particular subject.

1.     Study English II: Activating Your Grammar

Activate your grammar by thinking about the general grammar area before you begin to study. For example, if you are going to study English grammar focusing on the past, stop to think about what you did last weekend, where you went, etc. to help activate what you already understand about using the past. As with activating vocabulary, you'll help your brain bring up what it knows about the past simple in an easy way before you begin to focus on studying English grammar in detail.

1.     Study English III: Singing a Song

Before class begins, or before you sit down to study English sing a song in English to yourself. Make sure to use a song that you understand and know very well. This short and fun exercise will help your brain focus on the English language in a relaxing manner. It's important to be relaxed when you study English! Singing a song also helps activate the creative side of your brain which can help you come up with more examples as your practice conversation or do some creative writing.

1.     Study English IV: Typing e a Short Paragraph in English

If you going to study English at your desk, begin by typing a simple paragraph in English. You can type about your day, your hobbies, your friends, etc. Anything will do. Typing helps activate the kinetic part of your brain that helps improve learning through physical activity. I also recommend typing while you study your English grammar. This will help solidify your knowledge with movement.

1.     Study English V: A Thousand Words ...

As the saying goes in English: A picture is worth a thousand words. Help activate the creative side of your brain by trying to describe a photo or other image. You can combine use this also to activate your vocabulary by choosing a picture that has something to do with the subject your are going to study in English.

Study English - Tips for Success

Here are some tips for success to help you as you study English.

1.     Study English Every Day

It's important to study English every day. However, don't exaggerate! Study for thirty minutes every day instead of two hours once a week. Short, steady practice is much better for learning than long periods on an irregular basis. This habit of studying English every day will help keep English in your brain fresh.

1.     Study English Using Different Methods to Learn

Don't just use one way to study English. Use a variety of methods which will help all the parts of your brain (multiple intelligences) help you. For example, if you are learning new vocabulary, create a word map, describe a picture, make a list and study that, type out the words five times. All of these methods together help to reinforce your learning.

1.     Study English by Finding some Friends

There is nothing like having a few friends to study English together. You can practice the exercises together, have conversations together (in English!), and, as you study English together, help each other with exercises you may not understand.

1.     Study English by Choosing Topics that Interest You

One of the most important things to do is to study English using topics that you like. This will help motivate you because you will also be learning about a topic you find interesting while you study English.

 



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Learning English (or any language for that matter) is a process. You are continually improving your English and the following "How to" describes a strategy to make sure that you continue to improve effectively.

Difficulty: Average

Time Required: Varies

Here's How:

  1. Remember that learning a language is a gradual process - it does not happen overnight.
  2. Define your learning objectives early: What do you want to learn and why?
  3. Make learning a habit. Try to learn something every day. It is much better to study (or read, or listen to English news, etc.) 10 minutes each day than to study for 2 hours once a week.
  4. Remember to make learning a habit! If you study each day for 10 minutes English will be constantly in your head. If you study once a week, English will not be as present in your mind.
  5. Choose your materials well. You will need reading, grammar, writing, speaking and listening materials
  6. Vary your learning routine. It is best to do different things each day to help keep the various relationships between each area active. In other words, don't just study grammar.
  7. Find friends to study and speak with. Learning English together can be very encouraging.
  8. Choose listening and reading materials that relate to what you are interested in. Being interested in the subject will make learning more enjoyable - thus more effective.
  9. Relate grammar to practical usage. Grammar by itself does not help you USE the language. You should practice what you are learning by employing it actively.
  10. Move your mouth! Understanding something doesn't mean the muscles of your mouth can produce the sounds. Practice speaking what you are learning aloud. It may seem strange, but it is very effective.
  11. Be patient with yourself. Remember learning is a process - speaking a language well takes time. It is not a computer that is either on or off!
  12. Communicate! There is nothing like communicating in English and being successful. Grammar exercises are good - having your friend on the other side of the world understand your email is fantastic!
  13. Use the Internet. The Internet is the most exciting, unlimited English resource that anyone could imagine and it is right at your finger tips.

Tips:

  1. Remember that English learning is a process
  2. Be patient with yourself
  3. Practice, practice, practice


درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
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[ چهارشنبه 06 خرداد 1394 ] [ چهارشنبه 06 خرداد 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Canada - Fact Sheet

 

Official name:

Canada

Capital:

Ottawa

Size:

9,970,610 km²

Population:

29.1 million

Borders:

Arctic Ocean (north), Atlantic Ocean (east), USA (south), USA (Alaska), Pacific Ocean (west)

Currency:

Canadian Dollar

Official languages:

English, French

Nationality / People:

A person of Canadian nationality is a Canadian.

Local time:

Ottawa: 18:28 EST (Tuesday, 31st December 2013)
Vancouver: 15:28 PST (Tuesday, 31st December 2013)

Other interesting facts:

Canada is the second largest country in the world (after Russia). Almost 10 percent (755,180 km²) of Canada's total area are inland water.

on sights, history, culture and people from English speaking countries.

Fact Sheet

 

Official name:

Commonwealth of Australia

Capital:

Canberra

Size:

7.7 million km²

Population:

21 million

Borders:

no direct borders; Timor Sea and Arafura Sea (northwest), Torres Strait (northeast), Great Barrier Reef (northeast), Tasman Sea (southeast), Indian Ocean (south)

Currency:

Australian Dollar

Official language:

English

Nationality / People

A person of Australian nationality is an Australian.

Local time:

Perth: 07:30 WST (Wednesday, 1st January 2014)
Sydney: 09:30 EST (Wednesday, 1st January 2014)

Other interesting facts:

Australia is not only a country but also the smallest continent.

New Zealand - Fact Sheet

 

Maori name:

Aotearoaan (= land of the white cloud)

Capital:

Wellington

Size:

270,534 km²

Population:

3.5 million

Borders:

no direct borders; surrounded by sea (South Pacific)

Currency:

New Zealand Dollar

Official languages:

English, Maori

Nationality / People:

A person of New Zealand nationality is a New Zealander.

Local time:

11:31 NZST (Wednesday, 1st January 2014)

Other interesting facts:

The country's nearest neighbour is Australia, which lies more than 1,600 km northwest of New Zealand. New Zealand comprises two main islands (North Island and South Island) and a number of small islands, some of which are hundreds of kilometres from the main islands.

South Africa - Fact Sheet

 

Official name:

Republic of South Africa (formerly: Union of South Africa)

Capital:

Pretoria

Size:

1.221,037 km²

Population:

41.6 million

Borders:

Namibia (northwest), Botswana, Zimbabwe (north), Mozambique, Swaziland (northeast and east), Lesotho (within South Africa), Indian Ocean (southeast), Atlantic Ocean (southwest)

Currency:

Rand

Official languages:

English, Afrikaans, Tsonga, Ndebele, Zwazi, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu

Nationality / People:

A person of South African nationality is a South African.

Local time:

Johannesburg: 01:31 SAST (Wednesday, 1st January 2014)

Other interesting facts:

Although Pretoria is considered to be the capital of South Africa, the country actually has three capitals: Pretoria (executive), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial).

In its eastern part, South Africa entirely surrounds another country - Lesotho, an independent constitutional monarchy.

English is also an official language in the following African countries: Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Nigeria, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, The Gambia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Changed: 10th Dec 2010 19:39

India - Fact Sheet

 

Official name:

Republic of India, Hindi Bharat, Bharatavarsha

Capital:

New Delhi

Size:

3,166,414 km²

Population:

913.6 million

Borders:

Pakistan (northwest), China (north), Nepal, Bhutan (north), Myanmar (or Burma), Bangladesh (northeast), Bay of Bengal (east), Arabian Sea (west)

Currency:

Rupee

Official languages:

English, Hindi

Nationality / People:

A person of Indian nationality is an Indian.

Local time:

New Delhi: 05:02 IST (Wednesday, 1st January 2014)

Other interesting facts:

With more than one-sixth of the world's total population India is the second most populous country in the world (after China). In area it's the seventh largest country.

Malta - Fact Sheet

 

Official names:

Republic of Malta, Maltese Malta, Repubblika Ta'Maltacountry

Capital:

Valletta

Size:

316 km²

Population:

365,000

Borders:

no direct borders; surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea

Currency:

Euro

Official languages:

English, Maltese

Nationality / People:

A person of Maltese nationality is a Maltese.

Local time:

00:32 CET (Wednesday, 1st January 2014)

Other interesting facts:

There are five islands - Malta (the largest), Gozo, Comino, and uninhabited Kemmunett (Comminotto) and Filfla.

Changed: 10th Dec 2010 19:39

Bahamas - Fact Sheet

 

Official name:

The Commonwealth of the Bahamas

Capital:

Nassau

Size:

13,939 km²

Population:

268,000

Borders:

no direct borders; surrounded by the Carribean Sea in the Atlantic Ocean, at the gateway of the Gulf of Mexico

Currency:

Bahama Dollar

Official language:

English

Nationality / People:

A person of Bahamian nationality is a Bahamian.

Local time:

18:33 EST (Tuesday, 31st December 2013)

Other interesting facts:

The name of the state comes from the Spanish word »bajamar«, which means »shallow water«. The archipielago comprises almost 700 islands, of which only about 30 are inhabited.There are only two big cities on the Bahamas: Nassau (with about 170,000 inhabitants) and Freeport (with about 27,000 inhabitants).

The Bahamas were a British colony until 1973 and are now an independent nation within the Commonwealth.

Trinidad and Tobago - Fact Sheet

 

Official name:

Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Capital:

Port of Spain

Size:

5,123 km²

Population:

1.3 million

Borders:

no direct borders; surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, separated from the South American continent by the Gulf of Paria

Currency:

Trinindad-and-Tobago Dollar

Official language:

English

Nationality / People:

A person of Trinidadian and Tobagan (Tobagonian) nationality is a Trinidadian and Tobagan (Tobagonian).

Local time:

19:33 AST (Tuesday, 31st December 2013)

Other interesting facts:

Trinidad and Tobago were a British colony until 1962 and are now an independent nation within the Commonwealth.

Changed: 10th Dec 2010 19:39

Belize - Fact Sheet

 

Official name:

Belize, Belice (Spanish)

Capital:

Belmopan

Size:

22,965 km²

Population:

230,000

Borders:

Carribean Sea (east), Guatemala (south, west), Mexico (north, northwest)

Currency:

Belize Dollar

Official languages:

English, Spanish

Nationality / People:

A person of Belizian nationality is a Belizian.

Local time:

17:34 CST (Tuesday, 31st December 2013)

Other interesting facts:

Belize was a British colony until 1962 and is now an independent nation within the Commonwealth.

The country's capital used to be Belize City. However, when Belize City was ravaged by a hurricane in 1961, Belmopan was built to be the new capital.

Changed: 10th Dec 2010 19:38

Guyana - Fact Sheet

 

Official name:

Co-operative Republic of Guyanacountry

Capital:

Georgetown

Size:

215,000 km²

Population:

825,000

Borders:

Suriname (east), Brazil (south, southwest), Venezuela (west), Atlantic Ocean (north)

Currency:

Guyana Dollar

Official language:

English

Nationality / People:

A person of Guyanese nationality is a Guyanese.

Local time:

19:34 GYT (Tuesday, 31st December 2013)

Other interesting facts:

Guyana was a British colony until 1966 and is now an independent nation within the Commonwealth. It is the only English-speaking country on the South American continent.

Jamaica - Fact Sheet

 

Official name:

Jamaica

Capital:

Kingston

Size:

10,991 km²

Population:

2.5 million

Borders:

no direct borders; surrounded by the Caribbean Sea in the Atlantic Ocean

Currency:

Jamaican Dollar

Official language:

English

Nationality / People:

A person of Jamaican nationality is a Jamaican.

Local time:

18:35 EST (Tuesday, 31st December 2013)

Other interesting facts:

The state was a British colony until 1962 and is now an independent nation within the Commonwealth. Jamaica (Xaymaca) is the original indigenous name of the island. For some time, however, it was also known as Santiago - that's how Columbus named the island when he discovered it in 1494.

Changed: 10th Dec 2010 19:39

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درباره : مقالات انگليسي , مطالب جالب و خواندني ,
بازدید : 42
[ شنبه 26 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ شنبه 26 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Introduction

In the USA, children start school when they are five or six years old. Depending on the state, schooling is compulsory until the age of 16 or 18. Children younger than five can go to a nursery school or preschool.

At the age of five or six, the children attend elementary school (also known as grade school or grammar school), which last six years. The fist year at elementary school is called kindergarten.

After elementary school, students attend middle school (also known as junior high school) for three years. Then they continue at high school. In some states, students have to stay in school until they are 18 years old. In other states they may leave school at 16 or 17 with parental permission.

Age

School

< 5

nursery school / preschool

5-11

elementary school

11-14

middle school / junior high school

14-18

high school / senior high school

When students in the USA say what year they are in, they usually use ordinal numbers, e. g. ‘tenth grade’. (In the UK students would use cardinal numbers, e. g. ‘year ten’.)

Classes

At elementary school pupils primarily learn how to read, write and count. There are about 20 to 30 pupils in one class.

At junior and senior high school, mandatory subjects are English, maths, biology, chemistry, physics, physical education and history. Schools also offer optional courses from which the students can choose, e. g. art, modern languages, computers. Physical education is a very important subject in the United States – many students participate in sports programs.

Gifted and talented students can take advanced courses in their schools or attend additional courses at community colleges in the afternoons or during the holidays. Often such courses are later acknowledged by universities, and can facilitate early graduation.

Grading Scale

In the USA (as in other English speaking countries) letter grades are used in reports.

  • A > 90 % (excellent)
  • B > 80 % (very good)
  • C > 70 % (improvement needed)
  • D > 60 % (close fail)
  • E > 50 % (fail)
  • F < 50 % (fail)

In general, only grades A to C are a 'pass' – a plus (+) or minus (-) might be added (e. g. A-, B+).

Different Kinds of Schools

Most students in the USA are enrolled in public schools. These are financed through taxes, so parents do not have to pay for their children's education. About 10 % of US students attend private schools, where parents have to pay a yearly fee.

Another option is homeschooling: approximately 1-2 % of parents in the USA educate their children at home. Some reasons for homeschooling are religious views, special needs (e. g. handicapped children), or problems in traditional schools (bullying, drugs etc.). However, there is also opposition to homeschooling claiming that the students have difficulties socializing with others, that homeschooling (often carried out by the parents) is of a poor academic quality and that (especially concerning religion) extremist views might be encouraged.

School Uniforms

It is not common for students in the USA to wear school uniforms, but many schools have dress codes telling students what kind of clothing is or is not allowed in school. Some schools (especially private schools) have started to require their students to wear school uniforms in order to improve school discipline and avoid 'fashion cliques'.



درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 53
[ شنبه 26 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ شنبه 26 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Introduction

In this text you will find general information on the education system in the UK. As there are separate education systems in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, the actual ages etc. might vary a little.

School in the UK is compulsory between the ages of five and sixteen. Children younger than five can go to a toddler group (accompanied by a parent), playgroup or nursery school.

Compulsory schooling begins at the age of five. Pupils first attend primary school, which lasts for six years. Often primary school in the UK is divided into infant school (the first two years) and junior school (the following 4 years).

After primary school, students go to secondary school until they are sixteen (practical emphasis) or 18 (secondary school with 6th form - academic emphasis).

The school year consists of three terms. Students have about 12-13 weeks of holiday per school year.

Age

School

< 5

nursery school

 

5-11

primary school

oder

5-7

infant school

7-11

junior school

 

11-18

secondary school with 6th form

oder

11-16

secondary school

16-18

6th form college

When students in the UK say what year they are in, they usually use cardinal numbers, e. g. ‘year ten’. (In the USA, students would use ordinal numbers, e. g. ‘tenth grade’.)

Classes

At primary school, classes run Monday to Friday from about 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. There are usually between 25 and 35 pupils in one class. They primarily learn how to read, write and count. They also learn something about their country and about religion and they begin to study their first foreign language.

At secondary school, classes also run Monday to Friday, but are usually from about 8.45 to 3.30. Typical mandatory subjects are English, maths, natural sciences (biology, physics, chemistry), modern languages (French, German, Spanish), religion, citizenship, physical education, information and communication technology, geography and history. Apart from these, schools also offer optional courses from which their students can choose. At the age of sixteen, students usually sit several exams and decide whether they want to leave school or continue in a 6th form college.

Gifted and talented students can choose to enter for examinations early (one year or several terms) and then take additional courses in these or other subjects.

Grading Scale

In the UK (as in other English speaking countries) letter grades are used in reports.

  • A > 80% (excellent)
  • B > 70% (very good)
  • C > 60% (improvement needed)
  • D > 50% (close fail)
  • E > 40% (fail)
  • F < 40% (fail)

In general, only grades A to C are a 'pass'. Still, in the UK no student has to repeat a year – weak students can take extra lessons at school.

Different Kinds of Schools

Most students in the UK are enrolled in state funded schools. These are financed through taxes, so parents do not have to pay for their children's education. But there are also numerous private schools, also known as independent schools, where education is not free of charge.

Students can choose to attend a co-educational school or a single sex school.

School Uniforms

It is common for students in the UK to wear school uniforms. They consist of:

  • blazer or sweater with school logo
  • shirt and tie or polo shirt / t-shirt
  • dark trousers or dark skirt
  • black shoes

At some schools, students are required to wear a shirt and a tie, other schools only require a t-shirt or sweater. The colour of the uniform also depends on the school – blazer, sweater, trousers and skirt are usually blue, grey, green or brown.

Changed: 10th Dec 2010 19:39



درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 62
[ شنبه 26 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ شنبه 26 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

By Kenneth Beare

Here are some tips to improving English both in how your learn and via the internet.

1.     Remember that learning a language is a gradual process - it does not happen overnight.

2.     Define your learning objectives early: What do you want to learn and why? - Take this quiz to find out what kind of English learner you are.

3.     Make learning a habit. Try to learn something every day. It is much better to study (or read, or listen to English news, etc.) 10 minutes each day than to study for 2 hours once a week. - Take the English tip of the day newlsetter to help you.

4.     Choose your materials well. You will need reading, grammar, writing, speaking and listening materials - Beginners can use this starting English guide, intermediate to advanced learners can use this continue learning English guide.

5.     Vary your learning routine. It is best to do different things each day to help keep the various relationships between each area active. In other words, don't just study grammar.

6.     Find friends to study and speak with. Learning English together can be very encouraging. - Soziety can help you find friends to speak English over the inernet.

7.     Choose listening and reading materials that relate to what you are interested in. Being interested in the subject will make learning more enjoyable - thus more effective.

8.     Relate grammar to practical usage. Grammar by itself does not help you USE the language. You should practice what you are learning by employing it actively.

9.     Move your mouth! Understanding something doesn't mean the muscles of your mouth can produce the sounds. Practice speaking what you are learning aloud. It may seem strange, but it is very effective.

10.                        Be patient with yourself. Remember learning is a process - speaking a language well takes time. It is not a computer that is either on or off!

11.                        Communicate! There is nothing like communicating in English and being successful. Grammar exercises are good - having your friend on the other side of the world understand your email is fantastic!

12.                        Use the Internet. The Internet is the most exciting, unlimited English resource that anyone could imagine and it is right at your finger tips.

13.                        Be patient with yourself.

14.                        Practice, practice, practice



درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 73
[ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Language Learners’ Errors - Approaches & Significance

 

A reply to

 Call for papers by:

 

National English Secretariat

 

by: Fateme Moradian Fard

 

M.A in TEFL

(Graduated from the University of Isfahan)

English Teacher in:

 

Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiari Province, Farsan Township

Juneghan- Forouzande School

 

February 2009

 

Introduction

Dealing with learners’ errors has been a controversy for many decades and different perspectives, theories and solutions have been pointed out to analyze the errors and find their possible sources. For instance, many language teachers and learners blame L1 transfer for a majority of their problems with L2 grammar.

The teaching experience of the present writer in schools, private language centers and universities in Iran has also shown me that a large part of the learning problems that EFL learners encounter in producing the language, especially at lower levels of proficiency, seems to do with the areas where there is a difference in structure between the source and target language word partners.

But, the controversial issue is that whether L1 transfer is the only source of errors or there are other probable sources. In this paper, the significance of evaluating Error Analysis (EA) studies in 1970s, 1980s and the present time is discussed and the proper perspective toward the use of learner corpora in analyzing learner language errors is set in order to better understand the process and sequence of acquisition of English as a second/foreign language.

 

Literature Review

Before 1960s, when the behavioristic viewpoint of language learning was prevailing, learner errors were considered something undesirable and to be avoided. It is because in behaviorists’ perspectives, people learn by responding to external stimuli and receiving proper reinforcement. A proper habit is being formed by reinforcement, hence learning takes place. Therefore, errors were considered to be a wrong response to the stimulus, which should be corrected immediately after they were made. Unless corrected properly, the error became a habit and a wrong behavioral pattern would stick in your mind.

This viewpoint of learning influenced greatly the language classroom, where teachers concentrated on the mimicry and memorization of target forms and tried to instill the correct patterns of the form into learners' mind. If learners made any mistake while repeating words, phrases or sentences, the teacher corrected their mistakes immediately. Errors were regarded as something you should avoid and making an error was considered to be fatal to proper language learning processes.

This belief of learning was eventually discarded by the well-known radically different perspective proposed by N. Chomsky (1957). He wrote in his paper against B.F. Skinner, that human learning, especially language acquisition, cannot be explained by simply starting off with a "tabula rasa" state of mind. He claimed that human beings must have a certain kind of innate capacity which can guide you through a vast number of sentence generation possibilities and have a child acquire a grammar of that language until the age of five or six with almost no exception. He called this capacity "Universal Grammar" and claimed that it is this very human faculty that linguistics aims to pursue.

This swing-back of pendulum toward a rationalistic view of language ability led many language teachers to discredit the behaviouristic language learning style and emphasize cognitive-code learning approach. Hence, learners were encouraged to work on more conscious grammar exercises based on certain rules and deductive learning began to be focused again. This application of new linguistic insights, however, did not bear much fruit since Chomsky himself commented that a linguistic theory of the kind he pursued had little to offer for actual language learning or teaching (Chomsky, 1966) .  

In the school of applied linguistics, however, this shift towards the innate human capacity raised a growing interest in the learner's powers of hypothesis formation as he moves towards the bilingual competence sufficient for his communicative needs. One major result of this shift of attention was an increasing concern in the monitoring and analysis of learner language. The concepts of 'interlanguage' and 'approximate system' presented challenging areas of descriptive enquiry.

In 1970s and early 80s, a large number of papers on error analysis were published throughout the world. However, it lost its attention and enthusiasm gradually as more and more criticism was made against the approach and method of error analysis.

 

Error Analysis (EA): its roots and development

Larsen-Freeman and Long (1991) claims that the study of SLA can be said to have passed through a series of phases defined by the modes of inquiry researchers have utilized in their work: contrastive analysis, error analysis, performance analysis and discourse analysis (p.81).

 In order to look into the roots and development of error analysis, first I overview contrastive analysis so as to gain better insight into how error analysis became more popular among SLA researchers.

 

 

 



درباره : مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 57
[ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Most English learning boils down to the question of how to speak English. There are other goals as well, but learning how to speak English will help you communicate with others, and lead to better test scores on the TOEFL, TOEIC, IELTS, Cambridge and other exams. In order to know how to speak English, you need to have a plan. This guide on how to speak English provides an outline that you can follow to learn to speak English. If you already speak English, this guide will help you more quickly improve your English speaking skills.

Difficulty: Average

Time Required: From Six Months to Three Years

Here's How:

1.     Discover Which Type Of English Learner You Are

When learning how to speak English you first need to find out what type of English learner you are. Ask yourself questions such as Why do I want to speak English? Do I need to speak English for my job? Do I want to speak English for travel and hobbies, or do I have something more serious in mind? Here is an excellent worksheet "What Type of English Learner?" to help you find out.

1.     Understand Your Goals

Once you know what type of English learner you are, you can begin to better understand your goals. Once you know your goals, you'll better understand what you need to do to speak English well. This is similar to understanding what type learner you are. Write down a list of the things you would like to do with your English. Would you like to speak English fluently in two years? Would you like to have enough English to travel and order food in a restaurant? Understanding exactly what you want to do with English will help you learn how to speak English because you will work towards your goals.

1.     Find Out Your Level

Before you begin to learn how to speak English, you'll need to know where to begin. Taking a level test can help you understand what level you are at and then you can start using resources appropriate for your level in order to learn how to speak English well. Of course, you'll not only learn how to speak English, but also how to read, write and use English in a variety of settings. These quizzes will help you find your level. Start with the beginning level test and then move on. Stop when you get less than 60% and begin at that level.

1.     Decide On Learning Strategy

Now that you understand your English learning goals, style and level it's time to decide on an English learning strategy. The simple answer to the question of how to speak English is that you need to speak it as often as possible. Of course, it's more difficult than that. Start off by deciding which type of learning strategy you will take. Do you want to study alone? Do you want to take a class? How much time do you have to dedicate to English study? How much are you willing to pay to learn to speak English? Answer these questions and you will understand your strategy.

1.     Put Together A Plan For Learning Grammar

If you want to know how to speak English, you'll also have to know how to use English grammar. Here are my five top tips on how to speak English with good grammar.

1.     Learn grammar from context. Do exercises that have you identify tenses and from within a short reading or listening selection.

2.     When learning how to speak English you need to use your muscles. Read your grammar exercises aloud which will help you learn to use correct grammar when speaking.

3.     Don't do too much grammar! Understanding grammar doesn't mean you speak. Balance grammar with other English learning tasks.

4.     Do ten minutes of grammar each day. It's better to only do a little every day than a lot once a week.

5.     Use self-study resources at this site. There are lots of grammar resources you can use here on the site to help you improve.

1.     Put Together A Plan For Learning Speaking Skills

If you want to know how to speak English, you'll have to have a plan for speaking English every day. Here are my top five tips to make sure you speak - not just study - English every day.

1.     Do all exercises using your voice. Grammar exercises, reading exercises, everything should be read aloud.

2.     Speak to yourself. Don't worry about someone hearing you. Speak out loud in English to yourself often.

3.     Choose a topic each day and speak for one minute about that topic.

4.     Use online exercises and speak in English using Skype or other programs. Here's some practice English speaking sheets to get you started.

5.     Make lots of mistakes! Don't worry about mistakes, make many and make them often.

1.     Put Together A Plan For Learning Vocabulary

To make sure you know how to speak English about a wide range of topics you'll need plenty of vocabulary. Here are some suggestions and resources to get you started.

1.     Make vocabulary trees. Vocabulary trees and other fun exercises can help you group vocabulary together for faster learning.

2.     Keep track of new vocabulary you've learned in a folder.

3.     Use visual dictionaries to help you learn more vocabulary faster.

4.     Choose to learn vocabulary about subjects you like. There's no need to study vocabulary that doesn't interest you.

5.     Study a little bit of vocabulary every day. Try to learn just two or three new words / expressions every day.

1.     Put Together A Plan For Learning Reading / Writing

If you want to learn how to speak English, you may not be too concerned with reading and writing. Still, it's a good idea to learn how to read and write in English, as well as learn how to speak English.

1.     Remember to use your own native language reading skills. You don't need to understand every single word.

2.     Practice writing short texts on blogs or for comments at popular English learning web sites. People expect errors at these sites and you'll feel very welcome.

3.     Read for pleasure in English. Choose a subject you like and read about it.

4.     Don't translate directly from your own language when writing. Keep it simple.

1.     Put Together A Plan For Learning Pronunciation

Learning how to speak English also means learning how to pronounce English.

1.     Learn about the music of English and how it can help with English pronunciation skills.

2.     Find out about typical pronunciation mistakes people speaking your native tongue make.

3.     Consider using a pronunciation program to help you learn better pronunciation through practice.

4.     Get a dictionary that has good phonetic transcriptions to help you understand the sounds of English.

Use your mouth! Speak out loud every day the more you practice the better your pronunciation will become

  1. .


درباره : مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 48
[ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ جمعه 04 ارديبهشت 1394 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Pronouncing every word correctly leads to poor pronunciation! Good pronunciation comes from stressing the right words - this is because English is a time-stressed language.

Difficulty: Hard

Time Required: Varies

Here's How:



ادامه مطلب

درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 48
[ دوشنبه 04 اسفند 1393 ] [ دوشنبه 04 اسفند 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

I am often surprised at how focusing on the "stress - timed" quality of English helps students improve their pronunciation skills. Students often focus on pronouncing each word correctly and therefore tend to pronounce in an unnatural manner. By focusing on the stress - timed factor in English - the fact that only principal words such as proper nouns, principal verbs, adjectives and adverbs receive the "stress" - students soon begin sounding much more "authentic" as the cadence of the language begins to ring true. The following lesson focuses on raising awareness of this issue and includes practice exercises.

Aim: Improving pronunciation by focusing on the stress - time nature of spoken English

Activity: Awareness raising followed by practical application exercises

Level: Pre - intermediate to upper intermediate depending on student needs and awareness

Outline:



ادامه مطلب

درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 60
[ دوشنبه 04 اسفند 1393 ] [ دوشنبه 04 اسفند 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

By Kenneth Beare

 

Teaching reading can be an arduous task as it is often difficult to know how to improve student skills. One of the most obvious, but I have found often unnoticed, points about reading is that there are different types of reading skills.

  • Skimming - reading rapidly for the main points
  • Scanning - reading rapidly to find a specific piece of information
  • Extensive - reading a longer text, often for pleasure with emphasis on overall meaning
  • Intensive reading - reading a short text for detailed information

These different types of skills are used quite naturally when reading in a mother tongue. Unfortunately, when learning a second or foreign language, people tend to employ only "intensive" style reading skills. I have often noticed that students insist on understanding every word and find it difficult to take my advice of reading for the general idea, or only looking for required information. Students studying a foreign language often feel that if they don't understand each and every word they are somehow not completing the exercise.

In order to make students aware of these different types of reading styles, I find it useful to provide an awareness raising lesson to help them identify reading skills they already apply when reading in their native tongues. Thus, when approaching an English text, students first identify what type of reading skill needs to be applied to the specific text at hand. In this way valuable skills, which students already possess, are easily transferred to their English reading.

Aim: Awareness raising about different reading styles

Activity: Discussion and identification of reading styles with follow-up identification activity

Level: Intermediate - upper intermediate

Outline:

  • Ask students about what types of reading they do in their own mother tongue(s).
  • Write different categories of written material on board. i.e. magazines, novels, train schedules, newspapers, advertising, etc.
  • Have students describe how they go about reading each kind of material. You may want to prompt them by asking the following questions:
    • Do you read every word in the tv schedule?
    • Do you understand every word you read when reading a novel?
    • What kind of clues can the presentation of the material give?
    • How much time do you spend reading the newspaper? Do you read every single word?
    • What kind of assumptions do you make when you read the first few lines, or a headline? (i.e. Once upon a time....)
    • How much time do you spend reading the various types of materials?
  • Based on students' answers to such questions, ask them to identify the type of skills they are using in the various reading situations.
  • Divide students into small groups and give them the skills summary and short worksheet.
  • Have students discuss their opinions about the various skills required for the listed materials.
  • Present various "real world" materials (i.e. magazines, books, scientific materials, computer manuals etc.) and ask students to identify the necessary skills required.

Reading Styles

Skimming - Reading rapidly for the main points

Scanning - Reading rapidly through a text to find specific information required

Extensive - Reading longer texts, often for pleasure and for an overall understanding

Intensive - Reading shorter texts for detailed information with an emphasis on precise understanding Identify the reading skills required in the following reading situations:

Note: There is often not a single correct answer, several choices may be possible according to your reading purpose. If you find that there are different possibilities, state the situation in which you would use the various skills.

  • The TV guide for Friday evening
  • An English grammar book
  • An article in National Geographic magazine about the Roman Empire
  • A good friend's homepage on the Internet
  • The opinion page in your local newspaper
  • The weather report in your local newspaper
  • A novel
  • A poem
  • A bus timetable
  • A fax at the office
  • An advertising email - so called "spam"
  • An email or letter from your best friend
  • A recipe
  • A short story by your favourite author


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3. LEARNING TO LEARN

 

What kinds of reading are associ

ated with being a good reader?

In most countries, students who read fiction for enjoyment

are much more likely to be good readers.

Students who read newspapers, magazines and non-

fiction are also better readers in many countries, although

the effect on reading performance is not as pronounced.

Students are much more likely to read newspapers and

magazines frequently than other types of reading material.

What it means

Students who read widely for pleasure have a better

chance to build and enhance their reading skills. While

the strongest readers are th

ose who read fiction, in

practice many students show a preference for other

forms of reading that have more direct relevance to

their daily lives. Encouraging the reading of diverse

materials, such as magazines, newspapers and non-

fiction, can help to make re

ading a habit, especially for

some weaker readers who might not be inclined to read

a work of fiction.

Findings

In most countries, students who read fiction are par-

ticularly likely to be good readers. On average across

OECD countries, students who read fiction for their

own enjoyment at least several times a month score

53 points above those who do so less frequently. This

is equivalent to three-quarters of a proficiency level.

However, the link between reading fiction and strong

reading performance varies greatly across countries.

In Mexico, Turkey and seven other countries, this link

is not apparent; but in the OECD countries Australia,

Austria, Finland, Luxembourg and Sweden, there is a

gap of at least one proficiency level between the

scores of those 15-year-olds who read fiction fre-

quently and those students

who read fiction less

often. Students who read magazines and newspapers

regularly for enjoyment also tend to be better readers

than those who do not. However, the relationship is

less strong than that between performance and

reading fiction. Only in Iceland, Israel, Sweden and

the partner countries Kyrgyzstan and Peru do regular

readers of newspapers score at least 35 points more,

on average, than other

students. Students who

read magazines regularly score at least 35 points

above those who do not in Finland, Hungary, the

Netherlands, the Slovak Republic and in the partner

countries Bulgaria and Montenegro

.

Frequent readers of non-fict

ion read at a higher level

than average in some countr

ies, but in most countries,

there is no significant po

sitive relationship with

performance. The difference is greater than 35 score

points in the Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden and the partner countries Bulgaria, Croatia

and Lithuania.

Reading comic books is gene

rally associated with a

low level of reading performance. This could well be

because weaker readers

find comic books more

accessible.

These findings need to be set alongside the actual

frequency with which students read different mate-

rials for enjoyment. On average in OECD countries:

• 62% of students read newspapers at least several

times a month;

•58% read magazines;

•31% read fiction;

• 22% read comic books; and

• 19% read non-fiction.

Definitions

Students were asked how often they read various

types of material because they want to. The graph

opposite compares those who said they read fiction

and comic books “several times a week” or “several

times a month” to those who said they read these

materials less frequently

or do not read them for

enjoyment at all. The results take into account stu-

dents’ gender, socio-economic background and immi-

grant status.

(2003)



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The skimming, scanning, extensive, intensive,analytic, exploratory, developmental, critical, narcotic and idea reading.

Other Answers (1)

1. KINDS OF READING andREADING TECHNIQUES ENGN01G/ENGN02G MS. LAARNI V. PEREZ
2. KINDS OF READINGAccording to purpose & manner of comprehending
3. 1. Extensive Reading - reading for pleasure any topic of interest - main purpose: to relax and enjoy yourself - comics, humorous stories, tales, novels, short articles in the newspapers and magazines, jokes, and other forms of light reading materials
4. 2. Intensive Reading - careful or in-depth reading - you read for details and extract specific info on particular topics - the kind of reading you do when you study, prepare a term paper, or an oral report - has several techniques or sub-types: scanning, skimming, exploratory reading, study reading, critical reading, and analytical reading
5. READING TECHNIQUES/SUBKINDS for Intensive Reading1. Scanning - rapid reading assisted by key words to locate specific pieces of info - for research, review - gets info that answer what, who, where, when, howExs. looking for a word meaning in the dictionary, getting a docu from the filing cabinet, looking through the yellow pages
6. 2. Skimming - rapid reading focusing on the TITLE, HEADINGS, TOPIC SENTENCE, SIGN POSTS to get the main idea - effective preliminary step to reading thoroughly bec. after skimming, you can quickly go back to details you need to read entirely
7. Skimming Steps1. Preview the text by reading the title and the introduction. (Usually, the intro has the thesis statement).2. Check if there are headings and subheadings.3. Read the 1st parag. and the 1st sentences of the succeeding parags.4. Quickly check keywords in the parag. (sometimes higlighted, italicized, underlined)5. Read the last parag. (Usually it summarizes the main points.6. If you feel that a parag. contains impt. Info that answers what, why, when, how, and who, read it fully.
8. Examples:• Surveying a chapter/article• Reviewing something you’ve read• Choosing a magazine/book to buy in the bookstore
9. 3. Exploratory Reading• Aims to get a fairly accurate picture of a whole presentation of ideas; how the whole selection is presented• Allots more time for reading• Examples:• Long articles in mags. , short stories, descriptive texts
10. 4. Study Reading - the reader must get a maximum understanding of the main ideas and their relationships - examples: SQ3R, SQ4R (survey, question, read, record, recite, review) SQ4R: STEPS 1. SURVEYING: (preparing for reading) Take note of the titles, headings & subheadings; words in italics or bold print; intro & summaries; pictures & captions; questions at the end of the chapter or section (do this in few minutes only)
11. 2. QUESTIONING: (focusing your reading)Turn headings & subheadings into questionsby asking who, what, when, where, why, andhow abt. them.3. READING: (focusing your reading)Take time to read with maximumcomprehension. Try to answer the questionsyou posed in the previous step. Try to det.the main ideas and major details of the text.
12. 4. RECORDING: (focusing your reading)Take note so you can remember what youhave read.5. RECITING: (recalling step)Recite aloud or mentally, pair up with apartner for a Q&A session.6. REVIEWING: (recalling step)Repeat some of the previous steps andreview on a regular basis
13. 5. Critical Reading - question, analyze and evaluate the text - use differentiate bet. fact
ücritical-thinking skills to: & make inferences abt.ürecognize author’s purpose in writing;üopinion; recognize the author’s tone inüpurposes and characters; recognize persuasive techniques or propaganda designed to swayüwriting; you to believe
14. - reader stops to consider the facts carefully, “take time to read in order to the get facts straight”Examples: Reading done in periodicals, books, ads which are loaded with propaganda devices designed to sway opinions
15. 6. Analytical Reading - careful attention to each word and its importance in relation to other words in the sentence or the parag. - Examples: Reading mathematical problems, scientific formulas, and certain definitive statements of key ideas that require a questioning/inquisitive mind
16. 7. Developmental Reading - When a reader is under a comprehensive reading program that lets him go through stages & monitors him closelyExamples:• SRA• ARC

From:

PISA 2009 at a Glance

Access the complete publication at:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264095298-en



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By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman

 

Researchers have identified three kinds of developmental reading disabilities that often overlap but that can be separate and distinct: (1) phonological deficit, (2) processing speed/orthographic processing deficit, and (3) comprehension deficit.

 

Researchers have made considerable progress in understanding all types of reading disabilities (Fletcher et al., 2007). For purposes of research, "reading impaired" children may be all those who score below the 30th percentile in basic reading skill. Among all of those poor readers, about 70-80 percent have trouble with accurate and fluent word recognition that originates with weaknesses in phonological processing, often in combination with fluency and comprehension problems. These students have obvious trouble learning sound-symbol correspondence, sounding out words, and spelling. The term dyslexic is most often applied to this group.

Another 10-15 percent of poor readers appear to be accurate but too slow in word recognition and text reading. They have specific weaknesses with speed of word recognition and automatic recall of word spellings, although they do relatively well on tests of phoneme awareness and other phonological skills. They have trouble developing automatic recognition of words by sight and tend to spell phonetically but not accurately. This subgroup is thought to have relative strengths in phonological processing, but the nature of their relative weakness is still debated by reading scientists (Fletcher et al, 2007; Katzir et al., 2006; Wolf & Bowers, 1999). Some argue that the problem is primarily one of timing or processing speed, and others propose that there is a specific deficit within the orthographic processor that affects the storage and recall of exact letter sequences. This processing speed/orthographic subgroup generally has milder difficulties with reading than students with phonological processing deficits.

Yet another 10-15 percent of poor readers appear to decode words better than they can comprehend the meanings of passages. These poor readers are distinguished from dyslexic poor readers because they can read words accurately and quickly and they can spell. Their problems are caused by disorders of social reasoning, abstract verbal reasoning, or language comprehension.

Subtypes of Reading Disability

Researchers currently propose that there are three kinds of developmental reading disabilities that often overlap but that can be separate and distinct:

  1. Phonological deficit, implicating a core problem in the phonological processing system of oral language.
  2. Processing speed/orthographic processing deficit, affecting speed and accuracy of printed word recognition (also called naming speed problem or fluency problem).
  3. Comprehension deficit, often coinciding with the first two types of problems, but specifically found in children with social-linguistic disabilities (e.g., autism spectrum), vocabulary weaknesses, generalized language learning disorders, and learning difficulties that affect abstract reasoning and logical thinking.

If a student has a prominent and specific weakness in either phonological or rapid print (naming-speed) processing, they are said to have a single deficit in word recognition. If they have a combination of phonological and naming-speed deficits, they are said to have a double deficit (Wolf & Bowers, 1999). Double-deficit children are more common than single-deficit and are also the most challenging to remediate. Related and coexisting problems in children with reading disabilities often include:

  • faulty pencil grip and letter formation;
  • attention problems;
  • anxiety;
  • task avoidance;
  • weak impulse control;
  • distractibility;
  • problems with comprehension of spoken language; and
  • confusion of mathematical signs and computation processes.

About 30 percent of all children with dyslexia also have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD



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In His Exalted Name

EFL Learners' Types of Oral Errors

and

 Teachers' Preferences For Correction

 

By:

Morteza Ahmady Gohari

Winter 1387

 

Abstract

Error correction has so far been dealt with in teaching English as a foreign language. Generally the role of this issue been restricted to teachers; however, a new wave of research has started to seek learner's opinions towards error correction. The process of error occurrence is inevitable in learning a language and knowing how to deal with it and how to provide appropriate feedback has always been the subject of investigation. The present study seeks to find out the role of error correction in EFL classroom and how much teachers care for error correction in oral context and what types of errors they consider to be corrected and what methods of correction they use. It also aims at finding about the learner's attitude towards error correction. It tries to investigate how best errors can be treated. It deals primarily with pedagogical applications for error analysis and error correction and is addressed to foreign and second language teachers.

 

Key words: error, mistake, error, correction, error analysis.

 



ادامه مطلب

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ERRORS_ CORRECT THEM OR NO?!

By:Azimeh Najafi Sayyar

Fars

Jahrom

Farzanegan Pre-University Center

 

Esfand 1387


Abstract

One of the most frequent questions asked by teachers is: “When, where and how should I correct the learners’ errors?”

Error correction is regarded as one of the most crucial aspects of classroom management that needs considerable skill and a careful policy on the part of the teacher. And for learners, error correction is part of the process of recognizing their errors and having confidence to try again in speaking abilities.

Recently, there has been a debate about the significance of error correction in the classroom. Some argue that since in acquiring the mother tongue, a child hardly takes notice of parental correction, and since adults follow a similar process in learning a second or foreign language, correction by teacher is of dubious value. On the contrary, many believe that error correction is an expected role for the teacher in foreign language situations where there’s little exposure to English.




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·         By salimerol

 

 

English is an international language which is used officially all around the world. Anybody who wants to make connections with the world we live in should learn English. I had English language classes in my secondary and high school years. I also took some private English learning courses throughout summers in my country, Turkey. However, I could not improve my English effectively as all Turkish students in Turkey. I fully agree that English will be learned most efficiently in the boundaries of an English-speaking country not in the home country because of some cases. Therefore, I came here, USA, to learn English better after graduation from my university.

First, English is dealt with all the time while staying in an English-speaking country. For instance, I have read newspapers and books, listened to the news, and watched movies, series, and commercials that are all in English since I came here. On the other hand, there are Turkish or translated of them in my country, so nothing forces me to look for media in English. I engage in it in daily life in the USA, as well. While I am doing my shopping, I can see English labels of vegetables, fruit, and ingredients of all food. If I would like to eat outside or to go to a coffee shop, the menus will be in English. Even if I just roam around, I will see shop names, advertising posters and the boards in English. In addition, everybody with whom I concerned communicates in English. I came here for the education; therefore I particularly make connections with my instructors and classmates. I can learn spoken English while I listen to them. Also, I speak English to make them understand me. I can develop not only my listening and speaking, but also my writing skills in order to give my homework in English to the teachers. All those experiences enumerated above will definitely enhance my English in an intensive way which I have never encountered in my own country.

Second, it is possible that English might be learned...



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If you plan on making your way in the world, learning a second language is imperative. English has a foothold as the “language of business,” and being so, has become the most commonly learnt second language amongst foreign language speakers. Not only is English significant in the business world, but in general, when people of differing native languages congregate, English is the language of everyday conversation. Again, this is because it’s most commonly taught in foreign schools, as English is the collective language spoken by 1.8 billion people worldwide, or 27% of the world’s population. By virtue of this, for those willing to make the effort, learning English proffers forth benefits that learning any other second language mightn’t. Highlighted below are some of these benefits, including employment opportunities; technical, economic and scientific innovation; and cultural understanding.

As the language of business, English will open up the world to you in nearly any field of employment. Because it’s so important to be bilingual, any company in any country of the world prefers a bilingual employee – and even more so, an English-speaking one – over an employee who speaks only his/her native tongue. In being bilingual in English, you will be able to communicate with others in all corners of the world (remember, over 27% of the world’s population speaks English), and you will be able to translate for those in your company who do not speak English. This makes you an exceedingly vital communication tool. Not only will you be an asset to your company, but you will reap many benefits as a result, such as a larger annual income, a better standard of living, and the opportunity to live just about anywhere in the world.

Along with being the language of business, English is the language of economic development, as well as technical and scientific innovation. The United States is the leader in technical innovation and economic development and, as a consequence, the language to know in making your way in these fields is English. English is also the language of science, so scientists must be fluent in order to communicate their findings with others. Being successful in any one of these prosperous fields requires fluency in English.

Lastly a great benefit to learning English is that it increases cultural understanding, not only of native English-speaking cultures, but of any other country whose second language is English. The film and music industries are largely English-driven. The art, traditions and culture of any country, especially those of native English-speaking countries, can be better understood if you have some knowledge of the English language. Being centuries-old and having been the native language of empirical powers and world leaders, English remains a great source of influence in human history, weaved into the narrative of many cultures, and sewn, like a cultural seed, throughout time.

 

If you endeavor to learn a second language, that language should be English. The benefits it proffers – including employment opportunities; technical, economic and scientific innovation; and cultural understanding – are exceeded by no other language in the world.



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Once we have some good ideas and have consulted with others via books and journals, written communication, face-to-face meetings, and other means, we are ready to write our piece. Of course, the act of writing itself can help us get ideas, and we may often find in the course of our writing that we need to go back and get some new ideas or revise the ones we started with. Below are five ideas that I try to keep in mind in my own writing.

Connect Ideas



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When we write for language learning journals, we benefit ourselves and others. Our students benefit in several ways. Firstly, if we are writing for journals, when we ask our students to write in class, it is not a case of "Do as I say, but not as I do", because we can show with them that we are "doing" too, by sharing with them about our own writing. In this way, we serve as a model and show that writing is not just something people do as a course assignment. Also, as we are writers too - facing the difficulties that all writers face, such as developing ideas, finding the right words to express our ideas, and facing sometimes unfavorable feedback - we may be slower to criticize our students, more accepting of their faults, and more insightful in the advice we offer.



ادامه مطلب

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  (Redirected from Associative learning)

Jump to: navigation, search

"Learn" and "Learned" redirect here. For other uses, see Learn (disambiguation) and Learned (disambiguation).


Learning is acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning curves. Learning is not compulsory, it is contextual. It does not happen all at once, but builds upon and is shaped by what we already know. To that end, learning may be viewed as a process, rather than a collection of factual and procedural knowledge.

Human learning may occur as part of education, personal development, schooling, or training. It may be goal-oriented and may be aided by motivation. The study of how learning occurs is part of neuropsychology, educational psychology, learning theory, and pedagogy. Learning may occur as a result of habituation or classical conditioning, seen in many animal species, or as a result of more complex activities such as play, seen only in relatively intelligent animals.[1][2] Learning may occur consciously or without conscious awareness. There is evidence for human behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as early as 32 weeks into gestation, indicating that the central nervous system is sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur very early on in development.[3]

Play has been approached by several theorists as the first form of learning. Children play, experiment with the world, learn the rules, and learn to interact. Vygotsky agrees that play is pivotal for children's development, since they make meaning of their environment through play. The context of conversation based on moral reasoning offers some proper observations on the responsibilities of

Types of learning

Simple non-associative learning



ادامه مطلب

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This inspiring book is a collection of warts-and-all accounts by teachers of how they have done the kind of teaching that TSR is all about. Though most of the chapters deal with largely L1 contexts, TSR members will find much to learn from and be motivated by.

 

In her introduction, Carole Edelsky sets the stage for the rest of the book by describing six characteristics of critical, whole language curricula.

 

1. No (or Few) Exercises

 

a.       Students see tasks as their own, i.e., something they own

b.      Students feel tasks are important to their lives or the lives of others

c.       The tasks are often a component of something long-term, such as a project

d.      The key is not the ‘what’ of tasks but the ‘why’, the purpose, i.e., tasks done just for the teacher are exercises.

 

2. Grounded in Students’ Lives

 

a.       Much of the curriculum starts with students’ lives, i.e., their interests, needs, curiosities, experiences, perspectives

b.      Teachers seek to learn about students

c.       Students have a role in how to study

d.      “When children count out popsicle sticks to subtract, they are learning hands-on. When children actually make change at the bake sale, they are learning about subtracting firsthand” (p. 26).

 

3. Offers a Safe Place

 

a.       Teachers and students look out for each other

b.      Everyone listens to everyone else

c.       They all help each other learn

d.      There exists a feeling of community

e.       Students and teachers are unafraid to say what they really feel

f.        Tough issues are discussed, not avoided

 

4. Takes a Critical Stance

 

a.       Studies topics without preset answers

b.      Understands the power of systems

c.       Examines how injustice is maintained and how it is broken down

 

5. Pro-justice

 

a.       Gives voice to those less often heard

b.      Looks for projects and other activities that advance justice and equity

 

6. Activist

 

a.       Does something about injustice, instead of just studying about it

b.      Shares examples of what people in the past have done

c.       Recognizes the power of everyday people.

Jacobs, G. M. (2002, June). [Review of The fate of progressive language policies and practices]. TESOLers for Social Responsibility Newsletter, 3(1), 10.

 

 

Dudley-Marling, C. & Edelsky, C. (Eds.) (2001). The fate of progressive language policies and practices. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

 

This book is similar to the 1999 collection edited by Edelsky and also published by the National Council of Teachers of English (USA). The current volume is composed mostly of stories by language educators of their attempts to implement progressive language teaching and policies and what happened to those attempts.

 

These stories offer a number of lessons which might be of use to TSR members and colleagues.

 

1.      Take a whole-school (or even wider) approach to change

2.      Set up collaborations between schools and universities

3.      Build connections with administrators at various levels and with curriculum developers

4.      Pay attention to curriculum and policy development at local, regional, and national levels

5.      Be aware of the local particularities of every situation and avoid cookbook implementation

6.      Have a clear focus and make sure that focus is shared with everyone, e.g., via clear, concise, well-researched policy papers

7.      Allocate sufficient time and other resources whenever starting a new school or program

8.      Involve as many people as possible in the formulation and planning of such initiatives

9.      Consider whether key constituencies are ready for change

10.  Communicate with and educate all stakeholders including students, e.g., build personal relationships with families of students

11.  Do not underestimate the power of discredited ideas to live on, even in the minds of those trying hardest to reject them

12.  Prepare for the inevitable departure of valued people in educational institutions and organizations

13.  Welcome dissenting views

14.  Work against prejudice, e.g., racism, and toward equality amongst colleagues and all participants

15.  Expect that progressive education will be attacked; the public should be ‘inoculated’ against these attacks

16.  Use public pressure, e.g., demonstrations and the press, to work for change

17.  Evaluate learning and build a repertoire of evidence in defense of progressive ideas – and report these regularly - while at the same time recognizing the need for ongoing improvement

18.  Focus people’s attention on basic aims and values in education; these should be among the measuring sticks used in evaluation

19.  Become articulate at describing and explaining progressive changes

20.  Think long-term; be ready for setbacks



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[ جمعه 04 مهر 1393 ] [ جمعه 04 مهر 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Journals play an important role in the language teaching profession by providing language educators with a forum to exchange and develop ideas. Indeed, the quantity and quality of journals in a professional field stands as an indicator of the growth and level of excellence achieved in that field. Thus, we need to promote our profession by providing good quality articles for our journals to publish. From an individual perspective, I have found writing for language learning journals to be an enriching and fulfilling, although at times humbling and frustrating, experience. This article brings together what I have read and heard from others on the topic of writing for language learning journals with my own limited experience in this pursuit.

The article divides suggestions for publishing in language learning journals into three parts. The first part presents seven suggestions for how we can get started finding ideas for what to write and how to work to improve on these ideas. The second part presents five suggestions for how to write up our ideas. The third and final part discusses six suggestions for how to choose a journal to write for and how to collaborate successfully with journal editors. Suggestions from the various parts sometimes overlap.



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Skimming and scanning are sometimes referred to as types of reading and at other times, as skills.

Skimming involves a thorough overview of a text and implies a reading competence. Scanning is more a limited activity, only retrieving information relevant to a purpose.

Brown (1994) suggest ed that "perhaps the two most valuable reading strategies for learners as well as native speakers are skimming and scanning." (p.283)

Pugh (1978) suggested that since scanning is a less complex style of reading it can be introduced first. Skimming requires greater fluency and more practice is required, so it should be introduced later.

Often skimming and scanning are used together when reading a text. For example, the reader may skim  through first to see if it is worth reading, then read it more carefully and scan for a specific piece of information to note.

Students need to learn that they need to adapt their reading and techniques to the purpose of the reading.

 By practicing skimming and scanning, the individual learns to read and select specific information without focussing on information that is not important for meaning.

 

Four Kinds of Reading

Donald Hall in "Four Kinds of Reading" identifies four legitimate types of reading. The thrust of his argument is that not all reading is worthwhile, and literature is frequently misread, either as narcotic reading or as philosophical discourse. While this may be true, it is useful to examine the four kinds of reading material he identifies and explore how these types of reading materials are both read and used in notes.

Most academic writing requires students to read for information or ideas. The focus in reading here is primarily intellectual.

Reading for Information

The first kind of reading Hall identies is reading for information. Materials like newspapers are designed to be read quickly in order to find facts. Most newspaper sentences are no more than fifteen words; paragraphs, no longer than three sentences. The text appears in narrow columns so the reader's eye can quickly move down the page. Typically, readers do not read every word, but skim the page for key facts. Hall describes reading for information as

. . . reading to learn about a trade, or politics, or how to accomplish something. We read a newspaper this way, or most textbooks, or directions on how to assemble a bicycle. With most of this sort of material, the reader can learn to scan the page quickly, coming up with what he needs and ignoring what is irrelevant to him, like the rhythm of the sentence, or the play of metaphor. Courses in speed reading can help us read for this purpose, training the eye to jump quickly across the page. . . . Quick eye-reading is a necessity to anyone who wants to keep up with what's happening, or learn much of what has happened in the past. (Hall 164)

Note Taking: Much of the factual information that students will use in a research paper can be read this way. When taking notes, students should limit their notes to key nouns or phrases, and avoid adjectives or adverbs. Students should be especially careful about "lifting" verbs from their sources. If students use distinctive verbs or lists of nouns from the source, these should appear in quotation marks in the student paper.

Reading for Ideas

Unlike reading for information, reading for ideas is slow, and sometimes torturous. Ideas require careful thought in order to be understood. The fact that John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Nov. 22nd, 1963, is a straightforward fact and easily understood. The answer to the question What were the immediate and long lasting effects of Kennedy’s assassination on the American psyche? requires careful thought and consideration.

While students can scan for information, ideas have to be appropriated which requires careful reflection. Students may need to re-read the material, take notes, spend time thinking about what was written, define words, research background and context, or discuss the material with a teacher or friend in order to comprehend complex ideas.

With a philosopher one reads slowly, as if it were literature, but much time must be spent with the eyes turned away from the pages, reflecting on the text. . . . [I]ntellectual writing . . . requires intellectual reading, which is slow because it is reflective and because the reader must pause to evaluate concepts. (Hall 165)

Note Taking: When reading complex material, students will need to jot down key nouns and then translate the original material into words the student understands. Sometimes it helps to summarize key ideas, sentence by sentence or paragraph by paragraph. The goal is to "digest" the material in order to understand it. Unfortunately, students often take the illegitimate shortcut of "cutting and pasting" ideas from the original source without filtering the ideas through their own consciousness. If a student cannot explain something he or she has read, the student cannot use it as source material.

These last two methods of reading apply primarily to writing about literature. The reader's goal in reading literature is to "feel" something, to connect to the writing on a visceral level.

Reading to Escape

Most people read novels to escape. What is sometimes called genre fiction or sometimes "pulp" fiction includes inexpensive and mass produced works of entertainment that people read to while away their time or ease their stress. While there is nothing wrong with some relaxing reading for pleasure, this type of reading seldom comes into play in the academic world. Hall describes escape reading as "narcotic reading" (Hall 165)

the automated daydream, the mild trip of the housewife and the tired businessman, interested not in experience and feeling but in turning off the possibilities of experience and feeling (Hall 165). . . . [T]he reader is in control: once the characters reach into the reader's feelings, he is able to stop reading, or glance away, or superimpose his own daydreams. (Hall 166)

Note Taking: Occasionally, an instructor might ask students to write a book review or personal reaction to a favorite book. When taking notes for this kind of assignment, students should focus on personal reactions to the reading and provide a summary of the plot. However, instructors will seldom expect students to read or write about literature in this way.

Reading to Engage

Unlike escape fiction, literature is meant to engage the reader in lived experience, so that readers wrestle with the emotional dilemmas that characters face. Hall suggests that

[i]f we read a work of literature properly, we read slowly, and we hear all the words. If our lips do not actually move, it's only laziness. The muscles in our throats move, and come together when we see the word "squeeze." We hear the sounds so accurately that if a syllable is missing in a line of poetry we hear the lack, though we may not know what we are lacking. In prose we accept the rhythms, and hear the adjacent sounds. We also register a track of feeling through the metaphors and associations of words. . . . [T]he great writers reward this attention. Only by the full exercise of our powers to receive language can we absorb their intelligence and their imagination. This kind of reading goes through the ear--though the eye takes in the print, and decodes it into sound--to the throat and the understanding, and it can never be quick. It is slow and sensual, a deep pleasure that begins with touch and ends with the sort of comprehension that we associate with dream. . . . To read literature is to be intimately involved with the words on the page, and never to think of them as the embodiments of ideas which can be expressed in other terms. . . . Great literature, if we read it well, opens us up to the world, and makes us more sensitive to it, as if we acquired eyes that could see through things and ears that could hear smaller sounds." (Hall 164-5)

Unlike escape literature, which though enjoyable and sometimes even intellectually stimulating, is often written quickly and following a formula, great works of literature are carefully and artistically crafted, wedding sound to sense.

Note Taking: When writing about a work of literature, students should strive to find the emotional center of the work (what is at stake). Students should note literary conventions, repetitions, and related ideas. It is often useful to identify things which seem confusing or strange because these often lie at the heart of the work's meaning. Again, it is often useful for students to summarize or paraphrase the whole work before beginning a detailed study of the interconnections between the parts of the work.



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[ چهارشنبه 26 شهريور 1393 ] [ چهارشنبه 26 شهريور 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

What it is

  • Skimming is a quick reading to get: 

-  to know the general meaning of a passage    

   - to know how the passage is organized,  that is, the structure of the text                  

-  to get an idea of the intention of the writer

  • Skimming is a more complex task than scanning because it requires the reader to organize and remember some of the information given by the author, not just to locate it.
  • Skimming is a tool in which the author's sequence can be observed, unlike scanning in which some predetermined information is sought after. 

When it is used

  • Skimming is used when reading some some general question in mind.
  • Skimming is used in making decisions on how to approach a text such as when determining  if a careful reading is deserving.
  • Skimming is used to build student confidence and an understanding that it is possible to gain meaning without reading every word in a text.
  • Skimming is used as part of the SQ3R method of reading, often for speed reading. This method  involves the student in surveying, questioning, reading, reviewing and reciting. Skimming is used for the initial survey and for review.
  • Skimming is a skill that a  student may want to develop if they are planning to continue with academic studies. It  is often used in reviewing for a test.

Role of the teacher

  • Before the students start reading, the teacher should guide students to ask themselves the following questions:

- What kind of audience was the text written for? Was it, for example,  the general public,             technical  readers, or  academic students?
- What type of text is it? Is it, for example, a formal letter, an advertisement, or a set of                instructions?
- What was the author's purpose? Was it , for example, to persuade, to inform or to                         instruct?

  • The teacher should make the following  clear to students before assigning a skimming exercise:
  1.  the purpose of the exercise
  2. how deeply the text is to be read 

Role of the student

  • Students read through the text in the following manner:
  1. Read the title if any.
  2. Read the introduction or the first paragraph.
  3. Read the first sentence of each of the following paragraphs.
  4. Read any headings or sub-headings.
  5. Look at any pictures or phrases that are in boldface or italics
  6. Read the summary or last paragraph.

Activities

  • Students must locate facts that are expressed in sentences,  not single words.
  • Although speed is essential and the teacher often sets a time limit to the activity,  skimming should not be done competitively. Students should be encouraged individually to better themselves.
  • To improve skimming, readers should read more and more rapidly,  to form appropriate questions and predictions and then read quickly
  • Pugh (1978) suggests that to assess skimming, after the students have read and completed the assigned questions, further questions may be asked, "beyond the scope of the purpose originally set" (p.70).  If students can answer these questions correctly,  it indicates they have read the text too closely. 

Research Questions 

  • Does the skill of skimming transfer from the first language to the second?


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It is common for both approaches to reading to be used in the same class. For example, where extensive reading is encouraged, the teacher may have all the students read the same text so they can discuss the topic together or learn a specific skill such as as writing an outline. 
In a class where intensive reading is mostly used, students may be asked to read texts of their own choosing to report back on,  in either an oral or written format.
In both approaches, it is not the nature of the skills that are of most interest but rather, the results  


Scanning

What it is

  • Scanning ia a quick reading, focusing on locating specific information.
  • Scanning involves quick eye movements, not necessarily linear in fashion, in which the eyes wander until the reader finds the piece of information needed. 
  • Scanning is used when a specific piece of information is required, such as a name, date, symbol,  formula, or phrase, is required. The reader knows what the item looks like and so, knows when he has located  what he was searching for. It is assumed then, that very little information is processed into long-term memory  or even for immediate understanding because the objective is simply matching.

When it is used

  • Scanning is used often with technical, scientific or professional materials to locate specific information.
  •  Scanning is a valuable skill for second language learners to develop because often they do not require a detailed read of a text. There are many everyday uses for scanning, relevant to a purpose, such as reading a schedule. 

Role of Teacher

  • The teacher selects passages that do include specific information.
  • The teacher may use authentic materials that are commonly scanned in real life, such as the telephone directory, menus, bus schedules.
  • The teacher may ask students before they scan a text to note how the information is organized in the text. 
  • The teacher needs to remind students that as they read carefully to find the required information, they should pay particular attention to titles and keywords. 

Role of the Student

  • The student forms questions before reading. What specific  information are they looking for?
  • The student looks for contextual clues. The student tries to anticipate what the answer might look like and what sorts of clues would be useful.
  • The student is aware of the graphic form that the answer may take, such as a numeral, a written number, a capitalized word or a short phrase that includes key words.

Activities

  • Activities may include exercises that are devised by the teacher in which students scan for a single word or specific text .
  • Activities may include exercises that are often carried on as a competition so students will work quickly.
  • Students use skills of prediction and anticipation. Students may do any of the following:

-  make predictions and guesses
-  use titles and tables of contents to get an idea of what a passage is about
-  activate prior knowledge about the topic of the passage by answering some questions or performing a quiz
-  anticipate what they want to learn about the top
-  use titles, pictures, and prior knowledge to anticipate the contents of the text
-  use key words, that may have been given to them by the teacher, that do not appear in the text, that allude to the main idea

  • It is an accepted view today that efficient readers are not passive. They react with a text by having expectations and ideas about the purposes of the text as well as possible outcomes. They reflect on expectations as they read, anticipate what will come next. In other words, they  "interact with the text".

Research Questions

  • Does the skill of scanning transfer from the first language to the second

 



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[ چهارشنبه 26 شهريور 1393 ] [ چهارشنبه 26 شهريور 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

 

Language Learning Errors,Approaches and Significance:

 

Contributory Factors to Students' Errors, with Special Reference to

Errors in Written English

 

Maria Mirani (MA)

English Instructor, Tehran,Educational Organization

 

District16

 

ABSTRACT

The primary focus of this article is to review the current literature on factors that contribute to errors in written English as well as to make a contribution to the subject of error analysis by way of identifying and discussing additional contributory factors. This is followed by practical suggestions to minimize the occurrence of errors in formal English.

 

Key words: Error, Error Analysis,  Sources of Errors ,PositiveTransfer , Negative

Transfer , Loan words, Asystematic Errors , Medium Transfer

 

Definition of Error

The present researcher uses the term "error" to refer to a systematic deviation from a selected norm (after Burt et al. 1982) or set of norms. In the Iranian education system, for instance, the selected norms are standard British English and educated Iranian English, although using standard American English or other standard varieties of native English will not be considered deviant.

 

What is Error Analysis?

Error Analysis (hereafter EA) is the examination of those errors committed by students in both the spoken and written medium. Corder, who has contributed enormously to EA, writes thus:

"The study of error is part of the investigation of the process of language learning. In this respect it resembles methodologically the study of the acquisition of the mother tongue. It provides us with a picture of the linguistic development of a learner and may give us indications as to the learning process."

(Corder, 1974: 125)

 

Why Error Analysis?

Error Analysis is useful in second language learning because this will reveal to us - teachers, syllabus designers and textbook writers - the problem areas. We could design remedial exercises and focus more attention on the trouble spots.

 

What are the Sources and Causes of Errors?

The following factors have been identified by various error analysts including the present writer.

 

Mother tongue interference

Wilkins observes:

"When learning a foreign language an individual already knows his mother tongue, and it is this which he attempts to transfer. The transfer may prove to be justified because the structure of the two languages is similar - in that case we get 'positive transfer' or 'facilitation' - or it may prove unjustified because the structure of the two languages are different - in that case we get 'negative transfer' - or 'interference'.

Wilkins, 1972: 199)

There is mother tongue interference in the areas of syntax, grammar, lexis and pronunciation.

 

Teachers of English in Iranare very familiar with erroneous constructions such as using "although" and "but" in the same sentence. In Farsi Language (hereafter FL) it is perfectly alright to write:

 

In all the literature on EA reviewed by the writer, the possibility that erroThIndetermit the articles have beens "a systematic technique employed by a speaker to express his meaning when faced with some difficulty" because of his "inadequate command of the language used in the interaction". (Corder, 1981 : 103) Some familiar communication strategies employed by language learners are avoidance, prefabricated patterns, appeal to authority, approximation, word coinage, circumlocution and language switch. Let us look at each of these briefly.

 

Avoidance

Learners tend to shun lexical items whose meanings they are not sure of, sounds they have difficulty in producing, and grammatical items they are not familiar with. Their avoidance leads to replacement of erroneous items. A learner who did not know the expression I lost my way, said I lost my road instead. (Brown, 1987 : 84) This is an instance of lexical avoidance.

 

Prefabricated patterns

Set phrases and stock sentences for different occasions may sometimes be used inopportunely by learners. An example is *I don't understand how can you do that, formed from two separate sentences "I don't understand", and "How can you do that?" The two sentences have been

juxtaposed without deleting "can".

 

Appeal to authority

This strategy is aimed at referring to an authoritative source - the

native speaker, teacher, or dictionary. The third source may not always be effective. A Persian-English bilingual dictionary which has the meaning of randan as both "to drive", and "to ride" is a possible contributor of error. In Persian-English bilingual dictionary randan corresponds to the antonyms in English. Thus, if a student were to say

*"Can you drive a horse ?", it is a deviation from standard English.

 

Approximation

In this strategy, the learner employs a lexical item which is not specific enough, but shares certain common semantic features, for example "knife" for "breadknife", "stick" for "truncheon", and "The visiting minister met the king" for "The visiting minister had an audience with the king".

 

 

 

 



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[ پنجشنبه 30 مرداد 1393 ] [ پنجشنبه 30 مرداد 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

I am often surprised at how focusing on the "stress - timed" quality of English helps students improve their pronunciation skills. Students often focus on pronouncing each word correctly and therefore tend to pronounce in an unnatural manner. By focusing on the stress - timed factor in English - the fact that only principle words such as proper nouns, principle verbs, adjectives and adverbs receive the "stress" - students soon begin sounding much more "authentic" as the cadence of the language begins to ring true. The following lesson focuses on raising awareness of this issue and includes practice exercises.

Aim: Improving pronunciation by focusing on the stress - time nature of spoken English

Activities: Awareness raising followed by practical application exercises including: function or content word recognition exercise, sentence stress analysis for spoken practice

Level: Intermediate to upper intermediate depending on student needs and awareness - recommended for upper level students who have a high level of understanding but are having problems with fluency in communication caused by pronunciation problems.

Outline:

1.      Begin awareness raising activities by reading an example sentence aloud to the students (for example: The boys didn't have time to finish their homework before the lesson began). Read the sentence the first time pronouncing each word carefully. Read the sentence a second time in natural speech.

2.      Ask students which reading seemed more natural and why it seemed more natural.

3.      Using the ideas students come up with, explain the idea of English being a "stress - timed" language. If the students speak a syllabic language (such as Italian or Spanish), point out the difference between their own native language and English (theirs being syllabic, English stress - timed). Just this awareness raising can make a dramatic difference in such students abilities.

4.      Talk about the differences between stressed words and non-stressed words (i.e. principle verbs are stressed, auxiliary verbs are not).

5.      Write the following two sentences on the board:

1.      The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance.

2.      He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the evening.

6.      Underline the stressed words in both sentences. Ask students to try reading aloud. Point out how each sentence seems to be approximately the same length in "stress - time".

7.      Help students improve their recognition of content words with the function or content word recognition exercise. Students must decide if words are function or content words.

8.      Ask students to look through the example sentences and underline the words that should be stressed in the worksheet.

9.      Circulate about the room asking students to read the sentences aloud once they have decided which words should receive stresses.

10.  Review activity as a class - ask students to first read any given sentence with each word pronounced followed by the "stress - timed" version. Expect a surprise at the quick improvement students make in pronunciation (I am every time I do this exercise)!!

 



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[ پنجشنبه 30 مرداد 1393 ] [ پنجشنبه 30 مرداد 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 


In this section:
What it is
Historical perspective
Background theory
How extensive reading may appear in a language class
- Types of programs
-Characteristics
- Materials
- Activities
- Assessment
Role of teacher
Role of student
Advantages
Challenges
Research topics
 

What it is

  • Brown (1989) explains that extensive reading is carried out "to achieve a general understanding of a text."
  • Long and Richards (1971, p.216) identify extensive reading as "occurring when students read large amounts of high interest material, usually out of class, concentrating on meaning, "reading for gist" and skipping unknown words."
  • The aims of extensive reading  are to build reader confidence and enjoyment.
  • Extensive  reading is always done for the comprehension of main ideas, not for specific details.

?



ادامه مطلب

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[ سه شنبه 14 مرداد 1393 ] [ سه شنبه 14 مرداد 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

In this section:
What it is
How it  looks
-Characteristics
-Materials
-Skills developed
-Activities
-Assessment
When it is used
Role of the teacher
Advantages
Disadvantages
Questions sometimes asked
 

What it is

  • Brown (1989) explains that intensive reading "calls attention to grammatical forms, discourse markers, and other surface structure details for the purpose of understanding literal meaning, implications, rhetorical relationships, and the like." He draws an analogy to intensive reading as a "zoom lens" strategy . 
  • Long and Richards (1987) say it is a "detailed in-class" analysis, led by the teacher, of vocabulary and grammar points, in a short passage."
  • Intensive Reading,  sometimes called "Narrow Reading",  may  involve students reading selections by the same author or several texts about the same topic. When this occurs, content and grammatical structures repeat themselves and students get  many opportunities to understand the meanings of the text. The success of  "Narrow Reading" on improving reading comprehension is based on the premise that the more familiar the reader is with the text, either due to the subject matter or having read other works by the same author, the more comprehension is promoted.

How it looks

Characteristics:

  • usually classroom based 
  • reader is intensely involved in looking  inside the text 
  • students focus on linguistic or semantic details of a reading 
  • students focus on surface structure details such as grammar and discourse markers
  • students identify key vocabulary
  • students may draw pictures to aid them (such as in problem solving)
  • texts are read carefully and thoroughly, again and again 
  • aim is to build more language knowledge rather than simply practice the skill of reading 
  • seen more commonly than extensive reading in classrooms

Materials:

  • usually very short texts - not more than 500 words in length 
  • chosen for level of difficulty and usually, by the teacher
  • chosen to provide the types of reading and skills that the teacher wants to cover in the course

Skills developed:

  • rapid reading practice 
  • interpreting text by using:

           -word attack skills


           -text attack skills
           -non-text information

Activities:

Intensive reading exercises may include:

  • looking at  main ideas versus details
  • understanding what is implied versus stated
  • making inferences
  • looking at the order of information and how it effects the message
  • identifying words that  connect one idea to another
  • identifying words that indicate change from one section to another


Munby (1979) suggests four categories of questions that may be used in intensive reading. These include:

1.   Plain Sense -  to understand the factual, exact surface meanings in the text

2.   Implications - to make inferences and become sensitive to emotional tone and figurative language

3.   Relationships of thought - between sentences  or paragraphs

4.   Projective - requiring the integration of information from the text to one's own background information

Note that  questions may fall into more than one category.

Assessment:

Assessment of intensive reading  will take the form of  reading tests and quizzes. 
The most common  systems  of questioning are multiple-choice and free-response.
Mackay (1968) , in his book  Reading in a Second Language, reminds teachers that the most important objective in the reading class  should NOT be the  testing of the student to see if they have understood. Teachers  should, instead, be spending most of the time training the student to understand what they read. 

When it is used

  • when the objective of reading is to achieve full understanding of: 

           - logical argument
           - rhetorical pattern of text
           - emotional, symbolic or social attitudes and purposes of the author
           - linguistic means to an end

  •  for study of content material that are difficult 

 Role of the teacher

  • The teacher chooses suitable text.
  • The teacher chooses tasks and activities to develop skills.
  • The teacher gives direction before, during and after reading.
  • The teacher prepares students to work on their own. Often the most difficult part is for the teacher to "get out of the way" .
  • The teacher encourages students through prompts, without giving answers.

Advantages

  • It provides a base to study structure, vocabulary and idioms.
  • It provides a base for students to develop a greater control of language
  • It provides for a check on the degree of comprehension for individual students

Disadvantages

  • There is little actual practice of reading because of the small amount of text.
  • In a class  with multi-reading abilities, students may not be able to read at their own level because everyone in the class is reading the same material.
  • The text may or may not interest the reader because it was chosen by the teacher.
  • There is little chance to learn language patterns due to the small amount of text.
  • Because exercises and assessment usually follow intensive reading, students may come to associate reading with testing and not pleasure.

Questions sometimes asked

  • Should the text be read aloud first or some explanation given?

- Nuttall (1986) suggests that if the teacher reads the text aloud before starting work on it, they have assumed part of the students' job.
- Others argue that without some help some students could not understand the text.
- Still others argue that it is easy to underestimate students. they may actually understand  more than is thought. If students cannot make any progress, the material may be unsuitable.



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Here are four different kinds of reading.

  • Skimming - running the eyes over quickly, to get the gist
  • Scanning - looking for a particular piece of information
  • Extensive reading - longer texts for pleasure and needing global understanding
  • Intensive reading - shorter texts, extracting specific information, accurate reading for detail.

Types of Reading

Maija MacLeod


In this Page:


Overview:

Aims of the web page:

Several types of reading may occur in a language classroom. One way in which these may be categorized , as suggested by Brown (1989) can be outlined as follows:

                            A. Oral
                            B. Silent
                                 I. Intensive
                                    a. linguistic
                                    b. content
                               II. Extensive
                                   a. skimming
                                   b. scanning
                                   c. global

The first distinction that can be made is whether the reading is oral or silent. This web page will not deal with oral reading, only silent reading. 

Within the category of silent reading, one encounters intensive and extensive reading.  Intensive reading is used to teach or practice specific reading strategies or skills. The text is treated as an end in itself.  Extensive reading on the other hand,  involves reading of large quantities of material, directly and fluently.  It is treated as a means to an end. It may include reading reading simply for pleasure or reading technical, scientific or professional material. This later type of text, more academic, may involve two specific types of reading, scanning for key details or skimming for the  essential meaning.   A relatively quick and efficient read, either on its own or after scanning or skimming, will give a global or general meaning. 

This web page then will first examine intensive reading. The second part will deal with extensive reading, with a focus on how it results in a general or global meaning. The fourth part gives a short comment on how intensive and extensive reading may operate in the same class. The fourth part examines scanning and the fifth, scanning. A final sixth part comments on how scanning and skimming may be used in the same reading.



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  •  KINDS OF READING andREADING TECHNIQUES ENGN01G/ENGN02G MS. LAARNI V. PEREZ
  • KINDS OF READINGAccording to purpose & manner of comprehending
  • 1. Extensive Reading - reading for pleasure any topic of interest - main purpose: to relax and enjoy yourself - comics, humorous stories, tales, novels, short articles in the newspapers and magazines, jokes, and other forms of light reading materials
  • 2. Intensive Reading - careful or in-depth reading - you read for details and extract specific info on particular topics - the kind of reading you do when you study, prepare a term paper, or an oral report - has several techniques or sub-types: scanning, skimming, exploratory reading, study reading, critical reading, and analytical reading
  • READING TECHNIQUES/SUBKINDS for Intensive Reading1. Scanning - rapid reading assisted by key words to locate specific pieces of info - for research, review - gets info that answer what, who, where, when, howExs. looking for a word meaning in the dictionary, getting a docu from the filing cabinet, looking through the yellow pages
  • 2. Skimming - rapid reading focusing on the TITLE, HEADINGS, TOPIC SENTENCE, SIGN POSTS to get the main idea - effective preliminary step to reading thoroughly bec. after skimming, you can quickly go back to details you need to read entirely
  • Skimming Steps1. Preview the text by reading the title and the introduction. (Usually, the intro has the thesis statement).2. Check if there are headings and subheadings.3. Read the 1st parag. and the 1st sentences of the succeeding parags.4. Quickly check keywords in the parag. (sometimes higlighted, italicized, underlined)5. Read the last parag. (Usually it summarizes the main points.6. If you feel that a parag. contains impt. Info that answers what, why, when, how, and who, read it fully.
  • Examples:• Surveying a chapter/article• Reviewing something you’ve read• Choosing a magazine/book to buy in the bookstore
  • 3. Exploratory Reading• Aims to get a fairly accurate picture of a whole presentation of ideas; how the whole selection is presented• Allots more time for reading• Examples:• Long articles in mags. , short stories, descriptive texts
  • 4. Study Reading - the reader must get a maximum understanding of the main ideas and their relationships - examples: SQ3R, SQ4R (survey, question, read, record, recite, review) SQ4R: STEPS 1. SURVEYING: (preparing for reading) Take note of the titles, headings & subheadings; words in italics or bold print; intro & summaries; pictures & captions; questions at the end of the chapter or section (do this in few minutes only)
  • 2. QUESTIONING: (focusing your reading)Turn headings & subheadings into questionsby asking who, what, when, where, why, andhow abt. them.3. READING: (focusing your reading)Take time to read with maximumcomprehension. Try to answer the questionsyou posed in the previous step. Try to det.the main ideas and major details of the text.
  • 4. RECORDING: (focusing your reading)Take note so you can remember what youhave read.5. RECITING: (recalling step)Recite aloud or mentally, pair up with apartner for a Q&A session.6. REVIEWING: (recalling step)Repeat some of the previous steps andreview on a regular basis
  • 5. Critical Reading - question, analyze and evaluate the text - use differentiate bet. factücritical-thinking skills to: & make inferences abt.ürecognize author’s purpose in writing;üopinion; purposes and recognize the author’s tone inücharacters; recognize persuasive techniques orüwriting; propaganda designed to sway you to believe
  • - reader stops to consider the facts carefully, “take time to read in order to the get facts straight”Examples: Reading done in periodicals, books, ads which are loaded with propaganda devices designed to sway opinions
  • 6. Analytical Reading - careful attention to each word and its importance in relation to other words in the sentence or the parag. - Examples: Reading mathematical problems, scientific formulas, and certain definitive statements of key ideas that require a questioning/inquisitive mind
  • 7. Developmental Reading - When a reader is under a comprehensive reading program that lets him go through stages & monitors him closelyExamples:• SRA• ARC


درباره : دامنه لغات , درك مطلب , مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 85
[ سه شنبه 07 مرداد 1393 ] [ سه شنبه 07 مرداد 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Different types of nouns refer to concrete and abstract nouns, countable and uncountable nouns, pronouns, common nouns and collective nouns. This beginning level guide provides simple explanations especially for ESL learners and lower level English classes

Confusing Verb Pairs

se 'go' to express the entire movement away from the current location of the speaker or listener to another location. For example:

Let's go to a film tonight.
Where did John go this afternoon?

Important Note: 'Go' is often used together with 'there' to indicate a location away from the speaker.

Verb Forms: Go - Went - Gone - Going

Use 'come' to express movement from a different location to the current location of the speaker or hearer. For example:

Would you like me to come over for lunch?
Please come to my party this coming Friday.

Important Note: 'Come' is often used together with 'here' to indicate a location close to the speaker.

Verb Forms: Come - Came - Come - Coming

Use 'get' to express a point of arrival or a destination. For example:

I got to work at seven thirty this morning.
It took us three hours to get to San Francisco.

Important Note: 'Get' is often used together with a specific point of time, a duration of time, or a specific destination.

Verb Forms: Get - Got - Gotten (got) - Getting

Use 'go' to express the journey, trip or experience in general. This includes both the journey to and from the destination. For example:

We went to Hawaii on vacation.
How often have you gone to that restaurant?

Important Note: 'Go' is also often used in general to speak about the entire journey, trip or experience, rather than the actual traveling to a location.

Verb Forms: Go - Went - Gone - Going

 

 

Use 'bring' to express movement towards or with a person that is at the current location. For example:

Could you bring me that newspaper, please?
Have you brought the documents along?

Important Note: 'Bring' is often used together with 'here' to indicate a location close to the speaker.

Verb Forms: Bring - Brought - Brought - Bringing

Use 'take' to express movement away from a person to a another location. For example:

We took our dog with us on vacation.
Do you take your briefcase with you to work every day?

Important Note: 'Take' is often used together with 'there' to indicate a location away from the speaker.

Verb Forms: Take - Took - Taken - Taking

Use 'fetch' to express the action of going to an object and bringing to back to the current location: For example:

Here Frankie! Go fetch the Ball!
Could you fetch the paper for me this morning?

Important Note: 'Fetch' is often used as a noun to speak about the game of running and getting a ball or other toy with a dog.

Verb Forms: Fetch - Fetched - Fetched - Fetching

 



درباره : مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 37
[ پنجشنبه 26 تير 1393 ] [ پنجشنبه 26 تير 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]

 

Take a look at the following list of stressed and non-stressed word types.

Basically, stress words are considered CONTENT WORDS such as

1.   Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter

2.   (most) principle verbs e.g. visit, construct

3.   Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting

4.   Adverbs e.g. often, carefully



Non-stressed words are considered FUNCTION WORDS such as

1.   Determiners e.g. the, a, some, a few

2.   Auxiliary verbs e.g. don't, am, can, were

3.   Prepositions e.g. before, next to, opposite

4.   Conjunctions e.g. but, while, as

5.   Pronouns e.g. they, she, us

Content or Function?

Write down 'C' for content and 'F' for function. When you have finished click on the arrow to see if you have answered correctly.

Example: magazine (C) as (F) many (F)


went
with
just
quickly
the
hard
next to
CD ROM
open
had
for
information
in order to
difficult
much
exacting
in front of
Jack
he
however

Identification and Practice

Mark the stressed words in the following sentences. After you have found the stressed words, practice reading the sentences aloud.

1.   John is coming over tonight. We are going to work on our homework together.

2.   Ecstasy is an extremely dangerous drug.

3.   We should have visited some more castles while we were traveling through the back roads of France.

4.   Jack bought a new car last Friday.

5.   They are looking forward to your visiting them next January.

6.   Exciting discoveries lie in Tom's future.

7.   Would you like to come over and play a game of chess?

8.   They have been having to work hard these last few months on their challenging experiment.

9.   Shakespeare wrote passionate, moving poetry.

10.           As you might have expected, he has just thought of a new approach to the problem.

pronunciation - Practicing Stress and Intonation

I am often surprised at how focusing on the "stress - timed" quality of English helps students improve their pronunciation skills. Students often focus on pronouncing each word correctly and therefore tend to pronounce in an unnatural manner. By focusing on the stress - timed factor in English - the fact that only principle words such as proper nouns, principle verbs, adjectives and adverbs receive the "stress" - students soon begin sounding much more "authentic" as the cadence of the language begins to ring true. The following lesson extends previous lessons by developing student ears' sensitivity to the rhythmic quality of English.

Aim: Improving pronunciation by focusing on the stress - timed nature of spoken English

Activities: Comparison of unnaturally and naturally spoken English by looking at the tendency of some students to pronounce every word correctly. Listening and Oral repetition exercise developing student ears' sensitivity to the rhythmic quality of English.

Level: Upper intermediate - recommended for upper level students who have a high level of understanding, but are having problems with fluency in communication caused by pronunciation problems.

Outline:

1.   Begin awareness raising activities by reading an example sentence aloud to the students (for example: The boys didn't have time to finish their homework before the lesson began). Read the sentence the first time pronouncing each word carefully. Read the sentence a second time in natural speech.

2.   Ask students which reading seemed more natural and why it seemed more natural.

3.   Using the ideas students come up with, explain the idea of English being a "stress - timed" language. If the students speak a syllabic language (such as Italian or Spanish), point out the difference between their own native language and English (theirs being syllabic, English stress - timed). Just this awareness raising can make a dramatic difference in such students abilities.

4.   Talk about the differences between stressed words and non-stressed words (i.e. principle verbs are stressed, auxiliary verbs are not).

5.   Write the following two sentences on the board:

1.   The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance.

2.   He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the evening.

6.   Underline the stressed words in both sentences. Ask students to try reading aloud. Point out how each sentence seems to be approximately the same length in "stress - time".

7.   Have students practice the first exercise in groups of two. By having students first read in a unnatural way and then in a natural way, students become more aware of their own tendencies to 'over-pronounce' each word.

8.   Now that the students are comfortable with listening to the stress-timed nature of English, raise their awareness about the rhythmic nature of English. Point out how important it is that they use their ears to aid them with the following exercise.

9.   Take this task to the next level by reading the following sentences aloud and have the students repeat each sentence. Each sentence is read aloud three or more times with a pause between each reading to allow students to repeat the sentence. Students should focus on imitating what they hear.

1.   Variety is the spice of life.

2.   I'll have bought a new house by the time Jack finishes school!

3.   PETA has been well known for its support by famous Hollywood actors and actresses.

4.   Why don't we catch a film tonight?

5.   You'd be surprised at how many people find English almost impossible to understand when spoken quickly.

6.   A great way to improve listening skills is to listen to songs that you are very familiar with and learn the words by heart.

7.   My favorite magazine is called Wired. It focuses on cultural, business and philosophical issues surrounding the information age and its instruments.

8.   So, as I was telling John, we had been waiting for about an hour when Frank finally showed up.

9.   Sentences that use a number of words to express simple ideas are about as boring as overcooked cabbage.

10.           Janet silently turned the page.

10.           Have students create their own sentences (about five or so). Ask them to pair up and practice the previous exercise with each other. One student reads and repeats his/her sentences while the other student repeats what he/she hears.

The Music of English

English is a very rhythmic language because only certain, important words are accented. For this reason, you should practice using your ear as much as possible.

Naturally Spoken English

Speak through the following sentences trying to carefully pronounce EVERY word. Notice how unnatural this sounds. Next, focus on speaking the sentences stressing only content words. Tape yourself doing this and you will be surprised at how quickly your pronunciation improves!

1.   By the time he receives this letter, I will have caught the train to Paris.

2.   Following closely behind the herd was a group of filthy, disgusting vultures.

3.   I'll make sure to give him a ring the next time I'm in town.

4.   Not only are the exams required, but they are also absolutely imperative for your further education.

5.   Hey, have you seen the new film with Bruce Willis? You know, the one where he's supposed to be a sensitive doctor.

Vocabulary for Beginning Level English Learners

English study vocabulary learning for beginners includes English vocabulary building quizzes and help for basic English vocabulary areas



درباره : مقالات انگليسي ,
بازدید : 51
[ پنجشنبه 26 تير 1393 ] [ پنجشنبه 26 تير 1393 ] [ غلامعلی عباسی ]
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